Purdue University
Cooperative Extension Service
West Lafayette, IN 47907


Developed by:
Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service


The Dairy Manure Management Planning publication was a joint effort of the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service and the Indiana Natural Resources Conservation Service. John Pedersen, Consulting Agricultural Engineer, Ames, IA, provided valuable technical input and editing.

Partial support for this publication was provided by the Indiana State Dairy Association.

The following individuals contributed to ID-208:

Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service:  Natural Resources Conservation Service:
Don Huber, Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology    Jeff Healy, State Soil Conservation Engineer
Brad Joern, Dept. of Agronomy                     Philip McLoud, Ass't. State Soil Conservation Engineer
Don Jones, Dept. of Agricultural & Biological     Jesse Wilcox, Conservation Agronomist
Alan Sutton, Dept. of Animal Science

Additional support was provided by:

Deb Felix and Kathy Brewer, Dept. of Agricultural & Biological Engineering, Purdue University
Cheri Janssen, Dept. of Agronomy, Purdue University
Russell Merzdorf, Agricultural Communication Service, Purdue University

Legal Requirements

The manure handling facilities for any confined feeding operation with 300 or more dairy animals on the farm at any one time during the year must be approved by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM). Furthermore, IDEM must approve plans for ALL new waste facilities before you begin construction.

Smaller operations may apply to IDEM for approval if they desire. In addition, any operation found in violation of water quality regulations must have their manure system approved.

"Confined feeding" is defined by the 1971 Indiana Confined Feeding Control Law as feeding animals for food (supplied only by means other than grazing), fur, or pleasure purposes in lots, pens, ponds, sheds, or buildings. IDEM considers two or more adjacent farms under one ownership or management to be one confined feeding operation in determining the "total number" of animals confined.

Local health and zoning requirements may also apply. IDEM and county agencies do not coordinate their approvals so dairy operations must obtain appropriate permits and approvals from both IDEM and local agencies.

Indiana Department of Environmental Management

Copies of current guidelines (Manure Management AW-1) and application forms used by IDEM for manure system approvals are available from Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Land Application Group, Water Quality Section, 100 N. Senate Avenue, P.O. Box 6015, Indianapolis, IN 46206-6015; Phone: (317)232-8731 or (800)451-6027.


Many Indiana dairy operations generate large volumes of manure. For example, 100 dairy cows produce over 6,000 cubic feet of liquid manure a month, which is over half a million gallons a year. Dairy manure is an economical fertilizer resource and can reduce a producer's commercial fertilizer costs by up to $50 per acre. If mishandled, however, dairy manure can contaminate surface and ground waters. Proper storage, handling, and application of manure from dairy operations can protect Indiana's water resources and increase profits for animal and crop enterprises.

A Manure Management Plan (MMP) brings together information about crops, livestock, and manure handling for your farm. This information will help you develop a better long-term plan for maximizing the value of your dairy manure.

Preparing the MMP takes some effort, but the results are reduced costs to your crop program and environmental protection.

A MMP includes:

*Field layout and identification.

*Field slopes, soil types, and soil test results.

*Crops and rotations for each field for the next three years, or the time period for your specific rotation.

*Crop nutrient requirements (Table 1).

*The types and amounts of manure produced each year (Table 2).

*What needs to be done to:

* Data on stored manure, and analyses of its nutrients content.

* Planning manure applications to meet land application needs, empty manure storages as required, and meet environmental requirements.

Keep in mind:

* It takes time to collect and organize information. Fortunately, you collect information such as field sizes or building capacity only once.

* Enough land equipment and labor must be available for spreading the manure at environmentally sustainable application rates in a timely fashion.

* If manure will be applied to land not owned by the operation, have Land Use Agreements signed by the property owners.

* You may want more storage capacity, to avoid spreading manure during the growing season and other times when ground conditions are not suitable.

Other publications describe in detail the collection, transport, and storage alternatives for handling manure from animal to storage. Use them to develop those portions of your MMP. Others detail crop nutrient needs under various conditions and can help assure that your crop needs are being met. See References near the end of this publication.

This publication concentrates on the timely application of manure nutrients to crops. It deals with the part of a Manure Management Plan that utilizes manure as a fertilizer. A summary of manure handling options is included, because they affect what is in storage. But, our purpose is to start with stored dairy manure and discuss handling alternatives and descriptions of components needed by various systems.


Dairy operators select a manure handling system based on factors such as location, size, type and use of their cropland, the number of animals, and the type of animal housing. Many options relate to the type of housing system - pasture, drylot (shed and lot), and enclosed. Here is a brief discussion of each system with design and management hints to minimize manure storage and application problems.

Keep uncontaminated surface water away from lots, settling facilities, infiltration channels, outdoor storages, and animal traffic lanes. Install gutters to direct roof runoff to a ditch or other diversion. The only exception should be when dilution water is needed for adequate lagoon treatment. Even then, it should be possible to divert the uncontaminated water away from the lagoon when dilution is not needed. Channel contaminated lot runoff to adequate treatment, storage, and application systems.

Pastures usually do not need separate manure management facilities; however, drylot and enclosed systems need specific facilities for handling manure as a solid, a liquid, or both. Figure 1 illustrates how the manure flows within each system. All systems return all manure to the land with no discharge into Indiana waters.

If your operation has more than 300 dairy animals, do not construct any manure handling facilities without first obtaining the approval of the Indiana Department of Environmental Management. In all cases, your local milk inspector should be kept informed of planned manure facility changes.

Figure 1. Dairy Manure Management Alternatives.

Pasture system

Pasture no more than two to three cows per acre, depending on the quality of the pasture. Rotate pastures to prevent overgrazing. Reduce erosion by providing stabilized areas (for example, a graveled slope around a waterer) for feeding, watering, and animal sorting and handling. Maintain vegetative cover on steep slopes near streams to minimize soil erosion and polluted runoff. See Purdue University's publication WQ-7 in References.

Dry lot systems

Minimum total space is at least 150 sq ft/cow -- 50 to 70 sq ft/cow inside the building and 80-100 sq ft outside.

Because of potential odor problems, select a site downwind and some distance from neighboring residences and businesses. Avoid potential ground water pollution: never put a drylot system near a sinkhole or abandoned well, or on a site known to be underlaid with fractured limestone. A bedded mound can help reduce mud and erosion and makes removing solid manure a little easier. Remove and renew bedded mounds two to four times each year.

Locate a drylot on a 4% to 6% slope for drainage. (Earth-moving equipment can often create enough slope if necessary.) Suggested slopes for the first 12 to 16 ft away from feeders and waterers are 3/4"- 1"/ft; from buildings, 1/2" - 3/4"/ft; and along drainageways, 1/4"- 1/2"/ft. Slope building floors 1/4" - 3/4"/ft toward gutters or an open front lot. Preferred slope direction is to the south or southeast for best drying and wind protection.

Common drylot manure handling equipment includes a tractor with scraper or bucket loader and a spreader. Solid manure from pens, including bedding, is hauled directly from the animal area to the field, or scraped to short-term storage when bad weather prevents field spreading. For a 10-day storage capacity, provide 10 cu ft/cow. Scrape outdoor lots daily if possible. See ID-122 in References.

Rain and snowmelt runoff from lots and solid manure storages is contaminated and must not flow directly into a watercourse. Scraping removes most of the solids from outdoor lot manure. To remove most of the remaining solids, channel runoff to a 2-4 ft deep settling basin that has 1 cu ft of liquid capacity per 12 sq ft of lot area. The basin should be checked after each rainfall event. Field spread solids periodically from the settling basin. See ID-114 or MWPS-18 in References.

Drain all contaminated liquids to a holding pond. An infiltration area where grass or other crops utilize the nutrients may be an option for smaller operations on some sites. The infiltration area is a low-slope area or channel where the liquids infiltrate the soil. Locate the area away from surface water and broken tile lines, but convenient for vegetation removal or harvest. Do not graze the infiltration area if soil type and moisture conditions make the area subject to soil compaction and erosion from cattle traffic.

Lot runoff stored in a holding pond is very dilute, but can be a source of nutrients and irrigation water.

Because of the wide variation in the concentration of nutrients in manure and runoff from lots, no nutrient estimates are included here. Measure with chemical testing and handle the nutrients just like the other solid and liquid manure discussed later in this publication.

Enclosed systems

In enclosed housing systems, animals are under a roof at all times in loose bedded housing or in bedded stalls with solid, partly-slotted, or completely-slotted alley floors. When siting a housing unit, consider manure flowing by gravity from housing to storage. At least 4 ft of fall in 300 ft is needed for gravity flow.

Most freestall housing systems generate manure in the form of a slurry. Removal and handling equipment is about the same as suggested for drylot solids. Mechanical or manual scrapers can be used also.

Slats over below-floor gutters or storages are occasionally used in Indiana, and require handling manure as a liquid. Scrapers, run frequently, work well in freestall alleys that are level so liquids do not run off. Flushed alley-ways require large volumes of fresh or recycled water. Normally milk house wastewater and parlor washwater are added to liquid manure systems. Storages below the floor tend to empty well by gravity drainage if the site permits.

Liquid manure handling systems

Pumps and collection pits can be used to transfer manure in a slurry or semi-solid state to outside storages. For examples see MWPS-7 or MWPS-18.

Liquid manure is stored in concrete pits under the floor, in an outdoor tank, or an earthen pit. Liquid manure can be put in a lagoon where it is both stored and treated. During the treatment, much of the nitrogen fertilizer value is lost. Equipment needed to handle liquid manure includes scraper blades or slotted-floors, manure pump and/or agitator, and liquid manure tanker or injection equipment. Liquid manure irrigating systems can be a source of odor problems.

Storages should be water-tight and at least 100 feet from any well or domestic water supply. Except for lot runoff, divert all surface drainage away from storage. Needed storage capacity depends on the number and size of the animals, manure cleaning method, and the length of time between storage unloadings. Consider rainfall and snow in determining outdoor storage capacity needs.

Table 2 gives estimated manure production values for roofed animal housing with reasonable allowances for bedding and for spilled and cleaning water. An unroofed outdoor storage also stores rain and snow that fall on its surface between emptyings -- typically the fraction of annual precipitation during the storage period, plus rain from a 25-year 24-hour storm. Little evaporation takes place from the surface of a dairy manure storage.

Provide storage for at least 1.5 cu ft/sq ft of area in the drained lot and the channel leading to the storage to handle rainfall for six months.

Freeboard is clear space in the storage above the designed maximum liquid level. For pits under slats, leave at least 1 foot for adequate ventilating air and some reserve storage.

Earthen storages and lagoons are more closely regulated than are concrete or steel storages because of potential leaking problems. Lagoons must be designed for manure treatment and rain water storage plus a specified volume of dilution water. See ID-120 in References.

Keep long bedding and dry or frozen materials out of a liquid manure storage. Haul such material directly to the field. For smaller operations, frequent hauling of liquid manure reduces the size of storage and equipment needed, better distributes the labor demand, and aids in reducing manure odors around the farmstead, as long as timing matches plant need and soil condition. Apply the manure early in the day, when it is cool. Air currents will rise, as the day warms up, minimizing odor. Incorporate manure to minimize odors and retain nutrients. Large operations benefit from long term storages where large amounts of manure can be spread infrequently over a short period of time to minimize application odors.

Agitate stored liquid manure before emptying the storage to reduce the sludge left in the storage and to make nutrient applications more uniform.

Gases escaping from agitated liquid manure can be deadly for both humans and animals. Operate all ventilation fans and open doors and windows when agitating and removing liquid manure stored in a building.


Organize information about your fields

* Get U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Quadrangle topographic maps (for surface slope information), Soil Survey maps (for soil types) and plat maps for the townships where your fields are located. The USGS and Soil Survey maps are available at county offices of the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) or the Purdue Cooperative Extension Service (CES). Plat maps are available from County Recorders.

* Outline each field that may receive manure with its size and shape using a dark pencil or marker on all maps.

* Mark each field with an identification system that is easy for you to remember. Add acres if the map is large enough.

* Note on the map the areas of each field protected by separation distances that prohibit or limit spreading manure.

* Make copies of the field maps for each year.

* Start recording field data in Worksheet A. 1.

Organize information about your crops

* Start, if you haven't all ready, using a crop production record keeping system in which each field's planting and harvesting dates, soil test results, and manure and fertilizer application rates are recorded. Date the entries. See ID-198 in References.

* Record crop plans, rotations, summarized soil test results, and crop nutrient requirements in Worksheets A.2. and A.3.

For crop nutrient needs, use recommendations from your crop consultant or fertilizer dealer based on anticipated yield and on soil test results for each field -- your data will fit your conditions best. Suggested data for Indiana are in Table 1, if you don't have data for your farm yet. More complete data are in Purdue publications AY-244 and AY-268; see References.

Table 1. Example crop nutrient requirements.*

N, P2O5, and K2O; soil concentrations and application amounts are in pounds per acre. Soil-P and soil-K reduce the amount of fertilizer-P and fertilizer-K needed.

                    Expected          N*        Use for Soil P (ppm) equal to or greater than    Use for Soil K (ppm) equal to or greater than:
                                             _____________________________________________    ______________________________________________
Crop                yield         N              0-5 6-10  11-30  31-35 36-4O 41-45 >46           0-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90  91-150 151-300 >300
                                                                pounds P2O5 per acre                            pounds K2O per acre (CEC of 10)
Corn/Gr_sorghum     80-110 bu    110             90  60     40     20    0     0      0            165   145   125   105   85     65     45      30     0
Corn/Gr_sorghum    111-125 bu    140             95  70     45     20    0     0      0            170   150   130   110   90     70     50      30     0
Corn/Gr_sorghum    126-150 bu    160            100  75     50     25    0     0      0            180   160   140   120  100     80     60      35     0
Corn/Gr_sorghum    151-175 bu    190            110  85     60     30    0     0      0            185   165   145   125  105     85     65      40     0
Corn/Gr_sorghum    176-300 bu    220            115  90     65     35    0     0      0            190   170   150   130  110     90     70      40     0
Corn_Silage         10-20 tons   140            115  90     65     35    0     0      0            300   280   260   240  220    200    180      110    0
Corn_Silage         21-25 tons   180            135 110     85     45    0     0      0            300   300   300   290  270    250    230      140    0
Corn_Silage         26-30 tons   220            150 125    100     50    0     0       0           300   300   300   300  300    280    260      160    0
Soybeans            30-40 bu     140 30          80  55     30     15    0     0      0            195   175   155   135  115     95     75       40    0
Soybeans            41-50 bu     180 30          90  65     40     20    0     0       0           210   190   170   150  130    110     90       45    0
Soybeans            51-60 bu     220 30         100  75     50     25    0     0       0           225   205   185   165  145    125    105       50    0
Soybeans            61-100 bu    250 30         105  80     55     30    0     0       0           240   220   200   180  160    140    120       60    0
Wheat/Rye*          30-45 bu     40             125  100    75     50    25    10      0           155   135   115    95   75     55     35       20    0
Wheat/Rye*          46-55 bu     40             130  105    80     55    30    15      0           160   140   120   100   80     60     40       25    0
Wheat/Rye*          56-65 bu     60             135  110    85     60    35    20      0           160   140   120   100   80     60     42       25    0
Wheat/Rye*          66-100 bu     75            145  120    95     70    45    20      0           165   145   125   105   85     65     45       30    0
Oats/Barley*        70-85 bu     40             125  100    75     50    25    10      0           155   135   115    95   75     55     35       20    0
Oats/Barley*        86-115 bu    40             130  105    80     55    30    15      0           160   140   120   100   80     60     40       25    0
Oats/Barley*       116-150 bu    60             135  110    85     60    35    20      0           160   140   120   100   80     60     45       30    0
Grass-Hay            1-2 tons    75             125  100    70     25    25    15      0            60    55    50    45   40     35     30       15    0
Grass-Hay            3-4 tons   140             150  125   100     50    50    25      0           120   110   100    90   80     70     60       50    0
Grass-Hay            5-6 tons   210             180  155   130     80    80    40      0          180   165   150   135  120    105     90       75    0
Grass-Pasture        1-2 tons    55             125  100    70     25    25    15      0            60    30    25    20   10      0      0        0    0
Grass-Pasture        3-4 tons   100             150  125   100     50    50    25      0           120    55    50    45   20      0      0        0    0
Grass-Pasture        4-6 tons   150             180  155   130     80    80    40      0           180    85    75    65   30      0      0        0    0
Grass/Legume_Hay     1-2 tons   115 40          125   95    70     25    25    15      0           240   220   200   180  160    140    120       60    0
Grass/Legume_Hay     2-4 tons   225 40          150  125   100     50    50    25      0           340   320   300   280  260    240    220       110   0
Grass/Legume_Hay     4-6 tons   335 40          180  155   130     80    80    40      0           440   420   400   380  360    340    320       160   0
Grass/Legume_Hay     6-8 tons   450 40          200  180   155    105   105    50      0           540   520   500   480  460    440    420       210   0
Grass/Leg_Pasture    1-2 tons   100 40          125  100    70     25    25    15      0           120   110   100    90   80     70     60        30   0
Grass/Leg_Pasture    2-4 tons   210 40          150  125   100     50    50    25      0           170   160   150   140  130    120    110        55   0
Grass/Leg_Pasture    4-6 tons   320 40          180  155   130     80    80    40      0           220   210   200   190  180    170    160        80   0
Grass/Leg_Pasture    6-5 tons   430 40          200  180   155    105   105    50      0           270   260   250   240  230    220    210       105   0
Tobacco              001.5 tons 250             175  120    75     75    50    25      0           350   300   250   200  150    100     75        40   0
Summer_Ann_Forag     0-3 tons   110             100   70    50     30    20    10      0           100    85    70    60   50     25      0         0   0
Summer_Ann_Forag     3-5 tons   165             120   90    60     40    20    10      0           150   135   120    95   70     35      0         0   0
Summer_Ann_Forag     5-7 tons   190             130  100    70     50    30    10      0           180   160   140   115   90     45      0         0   0
*For small grains, apply 1/3 of N in the fall and the rest of the
plant's requirements in the spring. All of the N could be applied from
manure in the fall if a nitrification inhibitor is added.

Organize information about your manure production

* Start tables like Worksheets B.1. and B.2. Measure manure storages, if necessary, to find the volumes. (See "Conversions" for useful formulas and data.)

* For manure nutrient values, use results from laboratory tests of the manure in your storages. The tests can be used to determine the manure nutrient level applied this year and to estimate the rate at which manure should be applied next year. Quick test meters (approximately 10 minute determination) are now available to estimate the nitrogen (N) value of liquid manure and lagoon water. If you don't have recent analyses, the values in Table 2 can be used temporarily as general estimates for dairy manure.

* Take manure samples in storage or during unloading. Samples are best taken after agitating and during pit emptying. See reference CES-227 or AY-277 on manure sampling.

Note that much of the information will not change every year -- field descriptions, manure storage data, crops, and rotations. You don't have all the work to do every year, just a review of your plan.


The following worksheets help you match the nutrients in the manure storages with crop nutrient needs. Decisions to be made include: Where and when do I apply manure and how much? The worksheets help make the calculations and organize the planning.

If you are expanding or developing a new operation, you may go through parts of the worksheets several times to consider alternatives.

Two inexpensive computer programs, AMANURE and MBUDGET, are available from Purdue University; see References. The programs help you rapidly change inputs and results to compare options.


This example shows how to develop a MMP for a 160-cow dairy freestall operation with tractor-scraped alleys. All animals are in enclosed buildings without access to outside lots, except a part-time exercise area. Scraped manure is pumped to an outside earthen liquid manure storage and then broadcast and incorporated with a 2750 gallon tanker wagon. Stacked, solid manure is also available from a 80-heifer/bedded tramp shed. Manure is spread (not incorporated) with a 4-ton spreader. All other animals are kept at another farm and are not part of this MMP. There are four fields (220 acres) considered for manure application on this 480-acre site. Cropping is based on a three-year rotation.

The example farm has a total of 480 acres. Fields 1-4 (220 acres) are available for manure application.

"A" Worksheets--Crop Data

List each field's basic information in Worksheet A.1. Enter the crops for several years' rotation in Worksheet A.2. Use longer rotations if they fit your operation. (For example, corn, bean, corn, wheat.)

In Worksheet A.3, list each crop's nutrient needs, based on anticipated yield and soil test results. Use data specific to your farm, if available, or the fertilizer recommendations for Indiana crops in Table 1. [Note: This table gives only some of the current fertilizer recommendations for Indiana crops. Check AY-244 and AY-268, or your local crop consultants for recommendations for your farm.] Note that N (nitrogen) depends on crop and the average or expected yield; it is adjusted if the previous year's crop was soybean (30 lb/a. N carry over) or legume hay or pasture (40 lb/a. N carry over). Recommended P (phosphorus) and K (potassium) fertilizer levels depend on the latest soil test results for the particular field -- the P or K recommended is the crop need at that field's P or K level.


In Worksheet A.3, find the N, P, K needs for each field and for each year, based on the crops in A.2. Where appropriate, deduct the legume carry over.

For Worksheet A.4, multiply the acres of each field, from A. 1, times the annual fertilizer recommendations for each field and crop, from A.3, to find the field nutrient needs for each field and each crop year.


Note: "available N" is the ammonia and organic nitrogen in the manure that is available to plants this year, after all losses have been accounted for.

To complete Worksheet A.4, total the nutrients (available N, P2O5, and K2O) needed each year for all crops on fields that will receive manure. Note that the nitrogen amounts that legumes can use, but do not require, are not added into the column totals.


Even though N applied to legumes is not required, P and K soil values can be raised when manure is applied to legumes.

Worksheet A.1 General field data

	           Miles to
Field     Acres     Storage      Soil Type      Soil Slope    Soil test (ppm)
number               (mi)                          (%)           P        K
1          60         1/8        silt clay loam     2           20       60
2          80         1/2         silt loam         2           10       60
3          60         1/4            loam           4           10       80
4          20         1/8            loam           6           50       95

Worksheet A.2. Crop rotation and yields

	         Year-1                   Year-2               Year-3
            ------------------      ------------------     ------------------     
 Field                Expected                Expected               Expected
number    Crop       yield/acre    Crop     yield/acre    Crop     yield/acre
1        Corn         160 bu       Corn       160 bu      Corn       l60 bu
2        Corn         120 bu     Soybean       40 bu      Corn       120 bu
3       Soybean        40 bu       Corn       120 bu      Wheat       60 bu
4      Grass Pasture   6 tons  Grass Pasture   6 tons  Grass Pasture   6 tons

Worksheet A.3. Annual crop nutrient recommendations for 3-year rotations

               Available N lb/acre         P2O5 lb/acre           K2O lb/acre
Field        ---------------------      -----------------      ------------------
number     Yr-1      Yr-2     Yr-3    Yr-1    Yr-2   Yr-3    Yr-1   Yr-2     Yr-3  
1           190      190      190     60      60     60      145    145     145
2           140   0(140)a     110b    70      55     70      130    155     130
3        0(14O)a     110b      60     55      70    110      115     90      80
4           150      150      150      0       0      0        0      0      0
a Legumes need no N, but 40 bu/a. soybean will use 140 lb N/a. (Table
1) if it is applied.

b Only 110 lb N is needed due to 30 lb N credit from last year's
soybean. Transfer data from Table 1 in Appendix or use your own
fertilizer data.

Worksheet A.4 Total field nutrient needs

Multiply field acres (A.1 above) x N, P2P5 or K2O per acre for the crop (A.3 above).

              Available N lb/field         P2O5 lb/field           K2O lb/field
Field        ---------------------      -----------------      ------------------
number     Yr-1      Yr-2     Yr-3      Yr-1     Yr-2   Yr-3     Yr-1    Yr-2      Yr-3  
1 - 60   11,400     11,400     11,400   3,600   3,600   3,600   8,700    8,700    8,700
2 - 80   11,200   0(11,200)a    8,800   5,600   4,400   5,600   10,400   12,400   10,400
3 - 60  0(8,400)a    6,600      3,600   3,300   4,200   6,600   6,900    5,400    4,800
4 - 20    3,000      3,000      3,000    0        0       0       0       0        0
Total    25,600     21,000     26,800  12,500  12,200  15,800   26,000  26,500   23,900
a 8,400 means legumes need no N, but 40 bu/a. soybean will use 140 lb
N/a. (Table 1) if it is applied: 140 x 60 acres = 8,400 lb N; 140 x 80
a. soybean = 11,200 lb N.

"B" Worksheets--Manure Production

With an inventory of crop and field information completed, you are ready to inventory manure produced and its fertilizer value when applied to your crops. If you have laboratory analyses of manure in each of your storages, use those test results in the worksheets. Otherwise, Table 2 has good estimates for dairy operations. The table values are "as removed from storage" and include estimated dilution, feed spillage, etc. They are averages of nutrient concentrations measured in many storages.

In Worksheet B.1, list the type of storage, type of animal, average number of animals that contribute manure to each storage (generally average animal capacity of building), portion of the year that the building is occupied, and annual manure production. Then, calculate monthly and daily average manure production and the total amount of manure you expect, using your own data or the estimates in Table 2.


Annual manure produced from the freestall barn, Storage #1:

In Worksheet B.2, enter the nutrient concentrations from your own test results or the average values in Table 2. Calculate the total of each nutrient in each storage.

Some application methods preserve more N for plant use than others. Nitrogen is lost largely to the atmosphere during manure application unless it is injected or promptly incorporated. N is also lost in the soil before crops can use it by microbial immobilization, denitrification, and leaching, especially if no nitrification inhibitor is used. "Available nitrogen" is the amount of N available during the current crop season. Select an Application Factor from Table 3 to account for N losses between storage and plant uptake.


Pound/nutrient/yr = (gal liquid manure/yr) x (1/1,000) x (lb
nutrient/1,000 gal of manure). For N, also multiply by the Application
Factor, Table 3.

923,077 gal/yr = 923.1  1,000 gal/yr

Available N from freestall storage:

=  13.9 lb/1,000 gal x 923.1 1,000 gal/yr x 0.8
=  10,265 lb N/yr in the freestall storage

lb P2O5 from the freestall storage:

=  15.0 lb/1,000 gal x 923.1 1,000 gal/yr
=  13,846 lb P2O5 yr

lb K2O from the freestall storage:

=  19.0 lb/1,000 gal x 923.1 1,000 gal/yr
=  17,539 lb K2O/yr

Compute the other manure sources as in Worksheet B.2.

If a storage is filled with manure from more than one source, such as from a freestall and dry cow unit illustrated in this example, calculate an average nutrient concentration for the storage. Divide the total P2O5 or K2O, lb nutrient/yr from both sources in Worksheet B.2. by the total volume (or weight) of manure added to the storage, gal/yr, from Worksheet B. 1. For N concentration, multiply total weight of N by the Application Factor from Table 3 and then divide by the total manure volume (or weight).

To find the potential dollar value of the manure resource, multiply the Total "lb nutrient/yr" for N, P2O5, and K2O (Worksheet B.2.) times the fertilizer price in your area. The total dollar amount assumes you can use all of the N, P2O5, and K2O. After completing Worksheet E, the potential value can be adjusted for the amounts of each nutrient that this year's crops are expected to use.

Worksheet B.1. Annual manure production

				            Wk/     Added/     Amt.     Amt. 
Manure	                           Number  Year     Year      Added/    Added/
Storage         Storage    Animal  Animal Animals   (ton/      Month    Day
ID              Capacity   Type    Units  Present   1000 gal) (ton/gal) (ton/gal)
Freestall(FS)  345,600 gal  Cows     160     50      923       76,923   2,529
Heifer(H)       96 ton     Heifers    80     45      450        37.5     1.23

Worksheet B.2 Nutrient concentrations and amounts in dairy manure

	         -- lb/ton --            Pound nutrient/year     
Manure		      or                      Available
Storage         -- lb/1000 gal --       -- lb/nutrient/year --
ID        -------------------         -------------------
          N       P2O5     K2O        N       P2O5     K2O
FS       11.1a     15       19      10,265   13,846   17,539
H        2.7b     3.8      6.8       1,215    1,710    3,060
TOTAL                               11,480   15,556   20,599
a Manure is incorporated so N loss is 20% (Table 3).
b Manure is surface spread so loss is 40%.

Before making decisions about which manure to apply where, see if you have more--or less--manure nutrients than your crops need. The total Avail. N, P2O5, and K2O needs of the crops from Worksheet A.3. and the animal nutrient production in Worksheet B.2. are shown together in Worksheet B.3.

Worksheet B.3. Balance sheet: Nutrients in manure and nutrients crops need

(Year 1 of rotation)

Total manure nutrients, lb/year Worksheet B.2. Total crop nutrient needs, lb/year, Worksheet A.4.

				 Total crop nutrient budget, lb/yr
			    	           N        P2O5      K2O
Total manure nutrients                   11,480   15,556    20,599
Total crop needs (Yr-1)                  25,600   12,500    26,000
Surplus manure nutrients (or shortage) (14,120)    3,056    (5,401)
Additional N used if N put on legumes.
Year 1                                  (8,400)
Year 2                                 (11,200)
Year 3				          ----

In this example, the dairy operation produces 11,480 lb available N, 15,556 lb P2O5, and 20,599 lb K2O, per year. Note that there is not enough manure nitrogen (11,480 lb/yr) to meet crop needs (26,000 lb/yr). The 14,120 lb/year calculated as needed N (shortage of manure N) is about 55% of annual need or about 100 lb N/acre of corn land (14,120/140 acres). Fill this need with commercial fertilizer.

There is surplus P. When soybean is growing in Fields #2 (year 2) or #3 (year 1), the soil tests in those fields for P and K could be substantially raised with manure. The legumes will use some of those elements. The legumes will also take up the N, even though it is not required.

There are two ways to handle excess P and K in certain fields, but still meet plant N needs:

Worksheet B.3. gives an overview of what manure utilization can offer your farming practices. If you do not have enough manure to fertilize all fields, save what nutrients you can by using manure carefully. If you have more manure than your crops and soils can safely use, consider contracting with neighbors for additional crop land. Another option is to put in a lagoon, which is a treatment unit that reduces the amount of nitrogen to about one-third.

In the example above, there is enough land to use the manure, based on crop nitrogen needs, but a surplus of phosphorus. The next step is to determine how much of which manure goes on which field.

"C" Worksheet--Manure Storage Capacity

The amount of manure storage needed depends on:

In Worksheet C, transfer the daily and monthly manure accumulation for each storage from Worksheet B. 1. An example of computing storages is shown below. Compute storage capacity in cubic feet, gallons, or tons of manure. See "Conversions and Volumes" for useful formulas. Assume at least 1 ft freeboard for deep pits, tanks, and earthen basins and lagoons.

The number of days of manure storage available is: manure storage capacity divided by daily manure accumulation.


Worksheet C. Manure storage capacity

Manure	 Daily manure    Monthly Manure   Existing Manure
Storage  Accumulation    Accumulation     Storage Capacity    Days Storage
ID        (gal or ton)    (gal or ton)      (gal or ton)
FS         2,529 gal        76,923 gal      345,600 gal            137
H           1.23 ton         37.5             96 tona               78
a Assumed value for this example.

"D" Worksheet--Labor, Equipment, and Cropping Time-Line

Worksheet D helps you schedule times to apply manure when soil and crop conditions are appropriate. Table 4 gives the average number of days available for land application on various crops based on typical Indiana weather and soil conditions. Adjust the "Suitable periods" and "Number of days" based on your experiences with each specific farm field.

Mark with "x" the times when labor, manure application equipment, or land are not available for applying manure. While planning manure application, try to minimize soil compaction, ruts in fields, and interference with the crop program.

Worksheet D. Field availability for application

"x" indicates field is not available.

and       Oct  Nov  Dec   Jan   Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun   Jul   Aug  Sep
1 Corn   xxxx                                  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
2 Corn   xxxx                                  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
3 Bean              xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx                 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
4 Pasture           xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

"E" Worksheets - Manure Budget

Several factors influence the effectiveness of fertilizing crops with stored manure. The following guidelines are suggested:

Non-legumes generally need more manure to satisfy their N needs than required for their P and K needs. Legumes can generate the N they need; but if N is applied, with manure or commercial fertilizers, the plants will use that N up to the amount listed in Table 1 as "N crop use/year."

Think of your manure storages as a checkbook for budgeting. Livestock deposit manure every day. You spend it seasonally to fertilize crops.

A "rich"operation

If your operation is "rich," it has animal manure nutrients filling up the "checkbook" as fast or faster than you can spend it on crops. You will, generally, apply manure to satisfy crop N needs, and will therefore over-apply P and K. Rotate fields receiving manure to avoid P and K build-up. It is best to apply P and K in manure at about the rates indicated by your soil and manure testing, or in Table 1, if possible. Contract with neighbors to accept some of your manure on their fields if your manure nutrient supply exceeds what you can usefully put on your crops.

In our example, applying manure to fields 1, 2, and 3 will supply adequate P and build up soil levels. Over the course of five to six years, the P soil levels should be high enough that only maintenance rates are needed. Continued high applications could result in excessive soil tests.

A "poor" operation

If your operation is "poor" relative to crop needs, it needs more nutrients. The plant demand for nutrients exceeds your supply of manure nutrients going into the checkbook each year. Commercial fertilizers make up the difference. Usually, manure is used to meet P and K needs, and supplemental N is added to meet N needs.

Even if you are manure "poor," if some fields are low in P and K, consider meeting plant N needs with manure on those fields; the extra nutrients will build up soil P and K levels for future crops. Since it is unlikely that both P and K are balanced exactly with crop needs, rotate fields with this option, too.

The following manure budget for our example illustrates the deposit/withdrawal system. The cropping year begins on October 1 with a certain amount of manure on hand (in storage). The animals increase the balance each month by a known amount of manure; withdrawals are made to apply manure to fields. Our example farmer can spread up to 82,500 gal/day (10 hr/day x 3 loads/hr x 2,750 gal/load) and up to 80 ton/day (10 hr/day x 2 loads/hr x 4 ton/load).

To start Worksheet E: List the storages, copy the manure added/month (gal/mo or ton/mo) from Worksheet B.1, copy storage capacities (gal or ton) from Worksheet C, and the amount of manure in the storages at the beginning of the manure/crop year. We have assumed the capacities shown. Manure in storage can be calculated or estimated from the manure depth, see Conversions and Volumes.

The manure in a storage at the end of a month is:


Which manure on which field?

Using Best Management Practices # A8, A10, B6, C1, D2, D8, and D10 (see Appendix):


Worksheet E.1. Nutrient budget

Units in gallons for liquid manure and in tons for solid manure. Year 1 in rotation.

                 Manure						Manure inventory at END of each month
          ---------------------    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Storage   Add/   Stored    hand
ID      month  capacity  Sep 30    Oct       Nov      Dec       Jan    Feb      Mar     Apr     May    Jun      Jul      Aug      Sep
FS      76,923  345,600   230,000  59,423  26,346  103,269  180,192  257,115  47,038  13,961  90,884  167,807  244,730  239,153  233,576
H        37.5       96      40      17.5      55     92.5      34     31.5      69     14.5      52    89.5      55       4.5      42
Working days available              20        17       7        2       3        5      11       16     21       23       24       19
Maximum manure handled/mo     FS   1,650     1,402     577     165     247      412     907    1,320   1,732   1,897    1,980    1,567
(Thousand gal or ton possible) H   1,600     1,360     560     160     240      400     880    1,280   1,680   1,840    1,920    1,520
Manure Applied
Field #1                             FS/                       H/96                       FS/
(Storage ID/Amt. Applied)          110,000                                            110,000
Field #2                             FS/				        FS/
(Storage ID/Amt. Applied)          137,500         xxx                        204,500
			     H/60	        		       H/40
Field #3                                     FS/                               FS/
(Storage ID/Amt Applied)	            110,000                            82,500     H/92
Field #4												                     FS/       FS/
(Storage ID/Amt Applied)										                   82,500    82,500
                                                                                                                  H/72      H/88
Total Amount hauled/mo. (FS)       247,500  110,000
                                       gal      gal                           287,000   110,000                            82,500   82,500	
Total Amount hauled/mo, (H)         60 ton                    96 ton     40 ton            92 ton               72 ton      88 ton

Worksheet E.2. Summary, by field, for Year 1 in rotation


In Worksheet A.3, Avail. N for Year 1 (second column in the table), Field #1 needs 190 lb/a. N. From Worksheet A. 1, Field 1 is 60 acres (column 2). Total field needs, Worksheet A.4, = 190 lb/a. x 60 a. = 11,400 lb N for Field #1.

In the Worksheet below, in the column headed "Amt.", the amount of manure put on Field #1 from freestall storage (FS) = 220,000 gal. The amount for Field #1, heifer storage (H) was 96 ton.

The nutrient concentrations for the freestall storage (FS) manure are listed in Worksheet B.2. The freestall manure contains 11.1 lb N, 15 lb P2O5, and 19 lb K2O per 1000 gal. Multiply the manure amount (220,000) times the concentrations to find 2,442 lb N, 3,300 lb P2O5, and 4,180 lb K2O.

After finding the available N applied to Field #1 from the freestall storage (FS), compare this amount of N (2,442 lb) with the required N (11,400 lb). Additional commercial fertilizer will be needed (8,699 lb N). This could be applied before planting or with a starter fertilizer plus sidedressed N after plant establishment. In this example, additional K2O (but not P2O5) is also needed.

                                Field #1 (60 a.)                Field #2 (80 a.)
                                  -------------		        ---------------
Crop                  Amt       N       P2O5     K2O         Amt     N      P2O5    K2O
			         -- lb/field --	         -- lb/field --
Crop Needs            ----   11,400    3,600   8,700        ----   11,200   5,600  10,400
(from Worksheet A.3.)
Nutrient Applied, lb (from Worksheets B.2 & E.1)
FS                  220,000    2,442    3,300   4,180  FS 342,000   3,796   5,130   6,498
H                        96      259      365     653   H     100     270     380     680
TOTAL                          2,701    3,665   4,833               4,066   5,510   7,178

Additional Fertilizer          8,699      0     3,867               7,134      90   3,222
(Excess)                    ----         (65)  ------
                                    Field #3 (60 a.)                    Field #4 (80 a.)
                                    -------------		        ---------------
Crop                   Amt 	N        P2O5      K2O         Amt     N      P2O5    K2O
                                   -- lb/field --                      -- lb/field --
Crop Needs             ----   0(8,400)   3,300    6,900       ----    3,000   0       0
Nutrient Applied      192,500
FS                              2,137    2,888    3,658 FS   165,000  1,832   2,475  3,135
H                          92     248      350      626  H       160    432     608  1,088
TOTAL                   2,385   3,238    4,284                        2,264   3,083  4,223
Additional Fertilizer needed       62    2,616                          736        
(Excess)               (2,385)                                               (3,083) (4,223)
*() indicates application in excess of crop needs.


In our example, crops were selected for three-year rotations on fields expected to receive manure. Three major reasons suggest planning for at least three years or whatever your crop rotation is:

1. A three-year plan exposes trends in nutrient levels. Note in Worksheet A.4. that nitrogen needs for these fields were reduced the second year, but phosphorus and potassium levels were about constant.

2. If manure is applied to satisfy crop N needs, usually P and K are over-applied. The calculations show where P and K are available for future crops without buying commercial fertilizer. Planning helps maximize the dollar value of the manure!

3. Planning (and calculating) three nutrient budgets at once takes less time than doing each one separately each year. You can readily modify the budgets or add more fields if necessary.

In our example, manure was added to fields needing the most crop nutrients. Field #2 received the most manure first. Field #2 also benefited the most because of its lower P and K soil tests and need for nitrogen. The most concentrated manure (frees tall) was applied mainly to Field #1 and Field #2. More dilute manures were applied to the bean field (Field #3) and to the pasture (Field #4). Only the P and K credit can be assumed for fertilizer savings with legume crops.

It was necessary in this example to empty the manure pits by the end of November to have enough winter storage capacity (December through March). Some manure was applied in March, but it is most desirable to apply in April and May when field conditions are optimal.

Caution: Limited storage and limited manure- spreading capacity make it very difficult to fulfill a manure application schedule on the fields unless ideal weather conditions exist. Greater storage capacity allows more scheduling flexibility. Field spreading may be impossible during abnormally wet weather if soil won't support application equipment.

Summarize the volumes of manure from each source applied on each field in Worksheet E.2. Based on manure analyses from your farm, or the averages listed in Appendix Table 2, list the total amount of nutrients (Available N, P2O5, and K2O) supplied by the manure and compare it with the total amount required by the field (from Worksheet A.3.). Determine if commercial fertilizer nutrients are needed in the field.

In this example, P requirements were in excess for Field #4. In Fields #1, #2, and #3, additional K2O from commercial sources is needed. Additional N from commercial sources is required for Fields #1, #2, and #4.


This worksheet approach to developing a manure management plan can help you maximize the value of manure applications to cropland. It is not intended to "automate" decision making or to recommend specific practices. Rather, it is to help the conscientious producer better utilize the value of available manure resources. The specifics of each farm, crop rotation, and set of management objectives must still be weighed. Decisions by the producer will fit the farm's specifics into a workable manure "budget."

The following Best Management Practices (BMPs) provide guidelines for utilizing manure nutrients efficiently in cropping programs without negatively impacting the environment. Refer to the extension publications listed in this publication for more details on additional aspects of manure management.


A.Nutrient Management

A1. Reduce chemical (inorganic) fertilizer applied to a field by the corresponding amount of manure nutrients applied.

A2. Keep a record on each field of the manure and chemical fertilizer applied, crop information, and soil and manure test results.

A3. Test the soil in each field periodically for P, K, and other nutrient levels, pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Follow a soil testing routine recommended by the Cooperative Extension Service, a crop consultant, or fertilizer dealer.

A4. Test manure for TKN, NH4-N, P, K, and dry matter initially while emptying a storage. Use an on-farm quick test for available N content every 10 or so loads and adjust application rate if necessary. After manure laboratory test results indicate the nutrient values are generally stable, use quick tests on a few representative loads each year.

Note: Available N in storage = NH4-N + 0.3 x (TKN-NH4); where 0.3 is a typical mineralization value for Indiana.

A5. Apply manure uniformly with calibrated equipment. Check calibration routinely.

A6. Use the nutrients carried in runoff that has contacted manure.

A7. Nitrification inhibitors in liquid manure-injection systems can reduce nitrogen losses.

A8. In general it takes 5 lb P2O5 to increase the soil P test by 1 ppm and 1.75 lb K2O to increase soil K test by 1 ppm. Soils low in these nutrients can be "built up" to recommended levels with extra manure nutrients.

A9. To prevent excessive P and K build-up, rotate manure applications to other fields, or reduce manure application to meet the most limiting nutrient requirement (generally P) and supplement with commercial fertilizer.

A10. Consider using a pre-sidedress N test in fields receiving manure to supplement N available from manure applications.

B. Crop Factors

B1. Base crop fertilizer needs on realistic yield goals. Deduct nitrogen credits from last year's legume crop from this year's fertilizer requirements. For the current crop year, estimate N contributions from:

B2. Use commercial fertilizer only when manure does not meet crop needs.

B3. Apply fertilizer with proper timing and placement for maximum plant utilization.

B4. Add a nitrification inhibitor to stabilize N before:

B5. Incorporate manure to reduce N loss and manure runoff.

B6. Put manure on non-legume crops as a first priority.

B7. Surface-apply manure over fail cover crops or surface residues rather than tilled soil when necessary to minimize runoff.

B8. During the summer, broadcast manure on pastures or hay fields where nutrients can be used immediately, or incorporate manure on harvested wheat fields with a nitrification inhibitor.

C. Soil Factors

C1. Apply manure to fields with the lowest soil test.

C2. Avoid applying manure to wet soils to reduce compaction, runoff, denitrification, and leaching.

C3. Apply manure in the fall (possibly with an inhibitor) if compaction appears to be a prevalent problem with spring applications.

C4. Apply manure to sandy soil near planting time to minimize nitrate leaching. Applying smaller amounts of N more often during crop growth, rather than a large amount at one time, also minimizes the potential for leaching.

C5. Consider N-enrichment (adding anhydrous ammonia or urea) when incorporating manure at lower application rates to balance nutrients and meet crop needs.

C6. Apply manure in the fall after the soil has cooled to 50°F or less, or add a nitrification inhibitor.

D. Which Manure Where?

D1. Apply manure with the highest N content in the spring or fall; apply the lowest N manure in summer.

D2. Haul the highest nutrient content manure to the farthest fields.

D3. Apply lowest nutrient content manure to closest fields.

D4. Apply the highest nutrient manure to corn silage or other crops with high nutrient demands.

D5. Apply manure with a high N content to legumes only if you have no better use for the N since legumes produce their own N if none is provided.

D6. To avoid N leaching to ground water, limit N applications on sandy soils and avoid soils with high water tables.

D7. Do not apply more N than crop needs.

D8. Apply high-P manure to fields with lowest P soil test levels.

D9. Alternate each year between high-nutrient and low-nutrient manures if manure is applied to the same fields every year.

D10. Apply most concentrated manures to fields with high nutrient demand.

E.Site and Environment Factors

E1. Inject manure, or incorporate solid manure, the same day as surface spreading to minimize nitrogen losses, odors, and runoff potential.

E2. Delay manure applications and tillage of erosive soils until spring.

E3. Incorporate liquid manure applied in karst areas.

E4. Incorporate manure on nonerosive soils in fall to retain nutrients.

E5. Apply manure on frozen or snow-covered soil only if:

E6. Increase manure-spreading separation distances by 100% where runoff may occur.

E7. Surface apply manures in highly erodable land (HEL) to cover crops, residue cover, or consistent with erosion control practices.

F. Additional Recommendations:

F1. Check with local city and county officials for applicable regulations on zoning, health, building code, set back distances, etc.

F2. Unless manure is incorporated by the end of the working day (and before rainfall occurs), do not apply manure within:

F3. Do not apply manure within 200 ft of a water well.

F4. Do not apply manure on a floodplain during high water periods and not at other times unless manure is incorporated by the end of the working day, or unless there is sufficient residue or crop cover to protect the soil from erosion.

F5. Do not surface spread liquid manure on slopes steeper than 6% unless there is sufficient residue or crop cover to prevent runoff, or on frozen or snow-covered slopes steeper than 2%, because of the risk of runoff, unless incorporated into the soil by the end of the working day.

Table 2. Dairy Manure Storage Requirements and Nutrients Produced.

Values are based on building capacity and include typical dilution and bedding. Data are averages from nutrient measurements in many storages. Additional N can be lost during transport, distribution, and incorporation.

  Storage Type        Dairy Cow  Heifer  Dairy Calf  Veal Calf  Dairy Herd
							  (per cow)
Daily Manure Storage Required
Solid, lb/day           76.7      35.6         8.2        6.0        110.1
Liquid, gal/day         16.4       8.2         1.9        1.1         24.1
Lagoon, gal/day         30.1      16.4         3.3        2.7         45.4
Yearly Manure Storage Required
Solid, ton/yr           14.0       6.5         1.5        1.1         20.1
Liquid. 1000 gal/yr      6.0       3.0         0.7        0.4          8.8
Lagoon, 1000 gal/yr     11.0       6.0         1.2        1.0         16.6
Manure Nutrients
   Solid manure	        Pound of nutrient/ton of manure
Avail N, lb              4.2       4.5         4.3        6.2          4.3
P2O5, lb                 3.5       3.8         3.0        3.5          3.6
K2O, lb                  6.5       6.8         5.0        6.0          6.6
    Liquid manure            Pound of nutrient/1000 gal manure   

Avail. N, lb            13.9       13.8       1.6        22.6         13.8
P2O5, lb                15.0       14.0       14.0       22.0         14.7
K2O, lb                 19.0       28.0       24.0       40.0         21.8
     Lagoon                Pound of nutrient/1000 gal manure   
Avail. N, lb             2.9        2.8       2.3          2.7          2.9
P2O5,lb                  1.8        2.0       1.0          1.0          1.8
K2O,lb                   3.0        3.0        2.5        3.0          3.0

Table 3. Application Factors--% Available N left after handling, spreading, field, and soil losses.

Data on stored manure include losses during collection and storage. This table accounts for the losses between storage and plant nitrogen use for both liquid and solid manures. Nitrification inhibitors reduce N losses following injection or incorporation of liquid manure.

 Type of application            No inhibitor  With nitrification inhibitor
Irrigated                            50%           Not recommended
Surface spread                       60%           Not recommended
Injected or incorporated             80%                       95%

Table 4. When to Apply Livestock Manure to Indiana Crops.*

                                                                Number of days for applying manure

		Periods to apply manure                     With spreading equipment
					               Northern Indiana    Southern Indiana 
                     Bean/      Small       Legume/    -----------------  ---------------      With
Months    Dates      corn       grain      or grass   biweekly    total    biweekly  total   irrigation
Oct       1-15        x          --          x          10        20       10        20        13
   16-31              x          --          x          10                 10                  12
Nov       1-15        x          --          x           9        17        8        16         8
   16-30              x          --          x           8                  8                   4
Dec       1-15        d          b           d           5         7        6         9        --
   16-31              d          b           d           2                  3                  --
Jan       1-15        d          b           d           1         2        1         2        --
   16-31              d          b           d           1                  1                  --
Feb      1-151        d          b           x           1         3        2         5        --
   16-28              d          b           x           2                  3                  --
Mar       1-15        x          x           --          2         5        3         7        --
   16-31              x          --          --          3                  4                   6
Apr       1-15        x          --          --          5        11        6        13         9
   16-30             --          --          --          6                  7                  10
May       1-15        a          --          --          8        16        7        16        10
   16-31              a          --          --          8                  9                  --
Jun       1-15        a          --          --         10        21       10        21        12
   16-30              --         --          c          11                 11                  13
Jul       1-15        --         --          c          12        23       12        23        14
   16-31              --         --          c          11                 11                  15
Aug       1-15        --         x           c          12        24       11        24        15
   16-31              --         x           c          12                 13                  15
Sep       1-15        --         x           c          10        19       11        22        15
   16-30              --         --          c           9                 11                  15
Key to table symbols:,/i>

x.Typical application period.

a.Apply with injection or irrigate until corn is 2 feet high.  

b.Apply up to 1/4 of annual crop needs to dormant wheat in winter.

c.Apply up to 1/4 annual crop needs to grass immediately after harvest. If grass is pastured,
light applications are suitable all year.

d.See BMP's for spreading on sloping or frozen ground and near water.

* These are long term averages from Indiana Annual Crop and Livestock Summary, 1975. Actual 
periods vary by soil type, topography, and each year's weather.


* Parts per million (ppm) x 2 = lb/acre          * Divide lb/ton by 20 = %

* 5 lb P2O5 increases soil P test value by 1 ppm * Divide lb/1000 gal by 83 = %

* lb P2O5 x 0.44 = lb P                          * Typical density of manure = 62 pounds

* lb P x 2.29 = lb P2O5                              per cubic foot

                                                     Ton x 32.26 = cu ft
  * 1.75 lb K2O increases soil K test value by 1 ppm

  * lb K2O x 0.83 = lb K                             Cu ft x 0.0310= ton

  * lb K x 1.2 = lb K2O                              Ton x 241 = gal

                                                     Gal x 0.00414 = ton
  * Divide ppm by 10,000 = %


   80 lb nitrogen per ton/20 = 4% nitrogen.

   100 ton manure occupies about 3226 cu ft.

   Manure in 3500 gal tank weighs about 14.5 ton.


*"Freeboard" is space in a storage that is for safety. It is often one
foot or two feet of clear space between Liquid Depth, LD (maximum
manure depth), and total height or depth, H. It is intended to prevent
the storage from overflowing.

*If a rectangular tank is W ft wide, L ft long, and its sides are H ft high, and required freeboard is F ft:
Maximum manure depth = Liquid Depth = Height - Freeboard; LD = H - F.
Storage Volume = W x L x LD = W x L x (H-F) cu ft.

*If a circular tank has a diameter of D ft and sides that are H ft high, and required freeboard is F ft:
 Maximum manure depth = Liquid Depth = Height - Freeboard; LD = H - F.
 Storage Volume = 3.14 x D x D x LD /4 cu ft = 0.785 x D x D x LD. (3.14 is "Pi")

*If an earthen storage is W ft wide, L ft long, H ft inside depth, freeboard is F ft and the sides slope
 S ft horizontal to 1 ft vertical (manure surface is smaller than the top opening because of 
 the sloping sides and freeboard):
 Liquid Width = LW = W - 2 x F x S. Liquid depth = LD = H - F.
 Liquid Length= LL = L - 2 x F x S.
 Storage Volume = (LW x LL x LD) + (4 x S x S x LD x LD x LD/3) - ( S x LD x LD) x (LW + LL).

Hint: a. Multiply: (LW x LL x LD).
      b.Multiply: (4 x S x S x LD x LD x LD)
        and divide by 3.
      c.Add the second term, b,
        to the first term, c. = a. + b.
      d.Multiply (S x LD x LD).
      e.Compute (LW + LL).
      f.Multiply the two terms,
        f.= d. x e.
      g.Volume = c. - f.


Purdue University Computer Programs--

      AMANURE, 1994; this livestock manure/ crop fertilizer computer program handles one manure source and one crop; phone Purdue Farm Building Plan Service at (317)494-1173. $15.

      MBUDGET, 1994; Essentially an alternative to the worksheets in this publication; handles up to seven fields and up to seven manure sources; phone Purdue Farm Building Plan Service at (317)494-1173. $15.

    Purdue University publications--available from Purdue Cooperative Extension Service offices or from Agricultural Communication Service Media Distribution Center, Purdue University, 301 South 2nd Street, Lafayette, IN 47901-1232.

        ID- 101, 1994, Animal Manure as a Plant Nutrient Resource

        ID-114, 1976, Runoff Control Systems for Open Livestock Feedlots

        ID-120, 1977, Design and Operation of Livestock Waste Lagoons

        ID-122, 1976, Solid Waste Handling for Dairy Operations

        ID-198, 1993, Crop Production Recording System

        CES 227, 1990, updated 1993, How and Where to Get a Livestock Manure Analysis

        AY-244, Wheat Production and Fertilization in Indiana

        AY-268, Fertilizing Corn Grown Using Conservation Tillage

        AY-277, 1993, Calculating Manure and Manure Nutrient Application Rates

        AY-278, 1993, Estimating Manure Spreader Capacity

        WQ-1, 1990, Water Testing Laboratories

        WQ-7, 1990, Animal Agriculture's Effect on Water Quality - Pastures and Feedlots

        WQ-8, 1990, Animal Agriculture's Effect on Water Quality - Waste Storage

        WQ-16, 1993, Animal Agriculture's Effect on Water Quality - Land Application of Manure

      Midwest Plan Service - available from Purdue Farm Building Plan Service, 1146 Agricultural Engineering Building, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1146, (317) 494-1173.

          MWPS-7, 5th. Ed., 1995, Dairy Freestall Housing & Equipment Handbook. $20.

          MWPS-18, 3rd Ed., 1993, Livestock Waste Facilities Handbook. $8.

        New 7/95

        Cooperative Extension work in Agriculture and Home Economics, State of Indiana, Purdue University and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating: H.A. Wadsworth, Director, West Lafayette, IN. Issued in furtherance of the acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914. The Cooperative Extension Service of Purdue University is an equal opportunity/equal access institution.

        Reviewed September 1999