Farm Family Safety & Health Workshop


Edward J. Sheldon, M.S.
William E. Field, Ed.D.
Scott D. Whitman, M.S.
Steven A. Freeman, Ph.D.

Steven A. Freeman, Ph.D.
Scott D. Whitman, M.S.
Diana R. Doyle

Heather L. Bamforth

Cover photo
Larry Lefever from Grant Heilman Photography, Inc.


The authors would like to thank the following individuals for their contributions to the development of this document: Greg Schnepf, Caylor-Nickel Research Institute; Dr. Roger Tormoehlen, Purdue University, Department of 4-H and Youth; Mike Jones, formerly of Indiana Farm Bureau, Inc.; and Janet Kemper, Tippecanoe County, Indiana, Farm Bureau Safety Coordinator.

The authors also wish to extend thanks to the many individuals who have contacted Purdue University's Agricultural Safety and Health Program over the years requesting information and assistance in organizing agricultural safety and health workshops. Their questions and requests have not only highlighted the need for a publication of this type, but have also provided guidance on the topics and issues addressed in this document.

Most importantly, the authors express appreciation to the many people and organizations who volunteer their time and resources to share the important message of farm safety and health with members of their communities. Their continued efforts are a vital link in helping to reduce farm related injuries and deaths.

Table of Contents

Credits i

Table of Contents ii

Introduction v


Setting Your Goals 1

Who is the intended audience? 2

What topics do you want to cover? 2

When will the program be held? 2

Where will the program be held? 3

How are you going to do it? 3


Selecting Your Program Format 5

Classroom Instruction 6

Classroom and Hands-on Equipment Demonstrations 6

Concurrent Sessions with an Opportunity to Select Topics or Rotate 6 Children's Farm Safety Day-Camps 6

Sample Agendas 7

Farm Women's Safety Workshop 8

Farm Safety Workshop for Children 9

Farm Family Safety Workshop 10

Farm Operator's Winter Safety Seminar Series 11

Children's Farm Safety Day-Camp 14


Selecting Your Location 17

Size of Facility 18

Seating 18

Demonstration Locations 18

Accessibility for Individuals with Disabilities 18


Identifying Needed Equipment 19

Audio-Visual Equipment 20

Farm Equipment for Demonstrations 20

Coordinating Equipment for Presenters 20



Gathering Community Support 23

Cooperative Extension Service 24

Agri-Businesses 24

Farm Organizations 24

Other Local Businesses 24

Electric Utility Companies and Cooperatives 24

Civic Groups 25

FFA and 4-H Groups 25

Law Enforcement and Emergency Services 25

Hospitals and Other Health Related Organizations 25

News Media 25


Publicizing Your Workshop 27

Promotion Plan 28

Developing a News Release 29

Public Service Announcements 31

Posters 35

Brochures 35

Incentives 35


Finding Appropriate Teaching Resources 39

Rural Health and Safety Resource Directories 40

Audiovisual Materials 40

Publications 44

Sources of Additional Safety Information 46

Child Safety 46

Electrical Safety 46

Farm and Ranch Safety 46

Fire Prevention 47

General Safety 47

Rural Health 47

Outdoor Recreation Safety 47

Traffic Safety 47


Wrapping Up 49

Recognize the Sponsors, Speakers, and Workers 50

"Thank You" Notes 50

Media Announcements 50

Evaluations 50

Importance 50

Preparing the Evaluation Form 50

Sample Evaluation Form 51



Sample Farm Safety Lessons and Demonstrations 53

Tractor Safety 55

Tractor Overturn 55

Tractor and Equipment Runover 56

Power Take-Off Safety 57

Speed of Equipment and PTO Entanglements 57

PTO Entanglement 58

Grain Handling Safety 59

Flowing Grain Entrapment 59

Auger Entanglement 60

Pesticide Safety 61

Personal Protective Equipment for Pesticides 61 Triple Rinsing Chemical Containers 62

Emergency Response 63

Making an Emergency Phone Call 63

First Aid for Bleeding Injuries 64


Possible Workshop Topics 65

Farm Injury Statistics 66

General Farm Safety Considerations 66

Tractor Safety 66

Machinery Safety 66

Grain Handling and Storage 67

First Response to Farm Emergencies 67

Farm Respiratory Hazards 67

Agricultural Chemicals 67

Laws and Regulations 67

Shop and Farm Maintenance Safety 67

Rural Health 68

Rural Recreation 68

Returning to Work Following an Injury 68


Appendix 69

Farm & Ranch Safety Inventory 70

Introduction 70

Completing the Inventory 70

Organizing Your Findings 71

Categorizing Your Solutions 71

Prioritizing Your Solutions 71

Farm & Ranch Safety Inventory Form



Farming is one of the most hazardous occupations in America. Hundreds of people of all ages die each year from farm-related injuries, and thousands more suffer from disabling injuries and work-related illnesses. How do we reduce this significant number of deaths and injuries? Unlike most other businesses, the majority of farms are exempt from most government safety and health regulations, such as those enforced by federal or state Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) programs. The responsibility for educating farm family members about safety and health issues falls upon the farm family itself, and the information they receive from the farm media, Extension Service, farm organizations or rural community groups who are interested in making farming a safer way of life.

Over the years, Extension, local farm organizations, FFA chapters, and other interested groups have sponsored countless farm safety programs. These activities have been directed towards children, farm wives, farm operators, or the entire family. Although there is no way to completely measure the impact of such programs, they have become an integral part of most farm safety efforts and are generally believed to be an effective method of educating farm families and agricultural workers about the dangers of farm work.

This Leader's Guide is designed to assist you in organizing farm safety and health workshops in your local community. Whether you are planning a program for children, farm operators, or a general program for the entire family, many of the steps required for a successful workshop remain the same. The Leader's Guide provides insights on obtaining community support for your program, and provides a plan of action for organizing and conducting farm safety workshops. In addition, recommendations for potential resources such as videos and publications appropriate for particular audiences are included, as are instructions for conducting various demonstrations that illustrate the dangers of certain farm activities. Feel free to modify the recommendations and sample agendas to fit local needs and resources.

Organizing a farm safety and health workshop can be challenging, but this manual should make the job easier. Remember, a single farm safety and health workshop, regardless of how well attended, is no guarantee that your community will become free from farm-related deaths and injuries. These workshops and educational programs should be considered an essential part of a comprehensive community-wide effort to make your farms and rural neighborhoods safer and healthier places to live and work.


Setting Your Goals

When you first decide to organize a farm safety and health workshop, you need to develop some clearly defined goals for the program. Answering the following questions should assist you in defining these goals.

Who is the intended audience?

What topics do you want to cover?

When should the workshop take place?

Where will the workshop be held?

How are you going to do it?

Who is the intended audience?

Farm safety and health workshops can be targeted to farm operators of different ages, farm spouses, children, or the entire family. The topics to be covered and the method of teaching will vary for different target audiences. For family programs, remember that material directed toward children will also be understood by the adults, but not necessarily the other way around. Experience has shown that very successful programs can be designed for whole communities, but that programs targeting specific groups, such as spouses or children, are sometimes more effective.

What topics do you want to cover?

There is no way to cover all the potential topics concerning farm safety and health in a two-hour or three-hour session, or even in an all-day program. Choose one or a few specific topic areas to cover, such as machinery safety, child safety, harvest safety, health issues, or emergency response. By focusing on a few major points, you can be sure that the audience will gain useful knowledge in at least one area. A series of workshops scheduled over a two-year or three-year period can demonstrate a long-term commitment to improving the safety and health of farm families. See Chapter 2 for a more thorough discussion of selecting a program format.

When will the program be held?

The scheduling of a farm safety and health workshop depends on the topics you want to cover and the availability of your audience. Farm families are always busy, especially during the planting and harvest seasons. Unfortunately, these seasons are also the most dangerous times of the year on the farm. Many groups attempt to sponsor programs just prior to harvest or planting season to remind farm families of potential hazards they will face in the coming weeks. Farm families are also frequently involved in community activities such as school, church, or 4-H. Chances are good that a farm safety program scheduled for a Friday night in January will take second priority to the high school basketball game. And don't even think about scheduling a program for children just before the county fair when there are 4-H projects to finish.

Where will the program be held?

The program content and the audience are important considerations in selecting a location for your workshop. For farm machinery safety programs, an ideal location is an equipment dealership. The dealership will have machinery for demonstrations on site, and most equipment dealers are very receptive to this type of program.

Many successful programs have been held on farms. A shop or machine shed is needed to house the workshop, as well as a willingness on the farmer's part to do a little extra work preparing for the guests. Avoid locations where distractions such as nearby traffic, poor lighting, or animal noises will keep participants from hearing clearly or being comfortable.

Other potential locations include fairgrounds, or high school agricultural education shops and classrooms. These locations generally have excellent facilities, but you may need to bring equipment to the workshop. Chapter 3 provides more information to consider when selecting a workshop location.

How are you going to do it?

The key word in this question should be "we" not "you." Organizing any type of successful farm safety workshop requires the cooperation of individuals and groups within a community. A committee of several people can divide up responsibilities between them. For example, Joe is in charge of finding a location, Sally is responsible for refreshments and sponsors, Mary handles the publicity, and so on. Encouraging as many people as possible to take "ownership" in the program will increase the potential for success. See Chapter 5 for tips on gathering community support.

Allow plenty of time before your proposed program to develop your goals, plan the program, and publicize the event. The most successful farm safety and health workshops require careful planning and preparation. Try to allow at least three months of preparation time between your first planning meeting and the event.


Selecting Your Program Format

Classroom Instruction

Programs using only classroom instruction are probably best suited for adult groups. The maximum time for keeping participants' attention in this format, with at least one break, is probably two to three hours. Guest speakers, farmer panels, videos, slides, overhead transparencies, and small demonstrations are suitable for this type of program. This format is probably the easiest to arrange because no farm equipment is needed, and a simple classroom or meeting room is an ideal location.

Classroom and Hands-on Equipment Demonstrations

This format includes some classroom instruction, as well as equipment demonstrations or "hands-on" types of activities. This type of program is suitable for adult, family, or children's programs, depending on the program content and size of the audience.

Concurrent Sessions with an Opportunity to Select Topics or Rotate

Many highly successful children's workshops have utilized this format. The participants are divided into small groups of 10 to 15, and rotated through a series of mini-classes or modules. Each of these modules feature a speaker presenting a particular topic during a 15 to 30 minute period. Advantages of this format include the ability to cover a wide range of topics, the opportunity for better interaction between speakers and participants, and a higher probability of maintaining the participants' attention because of the short time frame. The major disadvantage of this format is that it is one of the more difficult to plan and organize. Several speakers must be found for various topics, and a location suitable for this type of activity, such as a school or church with classrooms, must be found.

Children's Farm Safety Day-Camps

Safety Camps, sometimes called "Day Camps," operate much like a one-day summer camp, except that the children attending the camp learn about such things as first aid, electrical safety, how to safely operate an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), or why grain augers and Power Takeoff (PTO) shafts are dangerous. Like other camps, the emphasis is on using hands-on activities that make learning fun. Camps are generally set up like the concurrent session workshop described in the previous section, using a module format that allows "campers" to rotate through a series of demonstrations, role-playing exercises, or activities with very specific learning objectives. For example, a workstation on proper fire extinguisher use would teach kids how to use a dry chemical extinguisher on a liquid fuel fire by actually using one. There are literally hundreds of topics for safety modules. See Chapter 10 for a listing of possible workshop and module topics.

Like the concurrent session workshop format, camps are a greater challenge to plan and organize. At least three months, and preferably six months, should be allowed for planning and preparation before your camp. Additional time is often required to find an appropriate location, coordinate with presenters, secure sponsorship, and publicize the event.

When planning a camp it is particularly important to establish a community-based camp planning committee, and to delegate tasks related to fund-raising, facilities, the program and presenters, publicity, registration, and meals to subcommittees or individuals. Utilizing individuals and organizations within the community will give more people "ownership" in the event-- people who will have a personal interest in making the event a success. Involving a committee of planners also helps to "spread the load" so that no single person is responsible for too many details. See Chapters 3 through 6 for more information on selecting locations, identifying equipment needs, gathering community support, and publicizing your event.

Sample Agendas

The following sections contain sample agendas for several different types of farm safety and health workshops. These are provided simply for your information. As the workshop organizer, feel free to modify these workshops to fit your interests, local needs, and resources.

To view PDF on Farm Women's Safety Worshop (pp8-15, PDF)


Selecting Your Location

Size of Facility

The size of your facility depends primarily on the expected attendance. A small program for 30 people would fit comfortably in a high school classroom and/or adjacent shop. Larger programs require more seating space, and more room for spectators during demonstrations. Experience has shown that attendance at farm safety programs generally attract 25 to 100 people. It is safer to err on the side of too much room than too little, but putting 25 people in an auditorium designed to seat 500 will cause the participants to feel too isolated from the speaker and each other.


Generally, most farm safety programs, even children's workshops, consist of at least some "classroom" type instruction. If the entire group is to be assembled, be sure to have seating available for everyone. For short programs in a machinery shed or fairground barn, even bales of straw make acceptable seating, especially for kids.

Demonstration Locations

Many workshops use a rotating format, where the participants are split into groups and move from one demonstration or "module" to another. Each unit may last from 10 to 30 minutes. For this type of program, you must have suitable locations for each of your speakers, along with seating for the number of people expected for each group. For this format, consider the types of demonstrations or equipment required, and allow space between each "module" so they will not interfere with one another.

Accessibility for Individuals with Disabilities

The workshop location should be accessible to everyone in the community, including those with disabilities. Make a visit to the potential site to assure that it is accessible to those who might have mobility impairments. This would include making sure there are accessible entrances, restroom facilities and demonstration areas. You may also want to consider the needs of attendees who have hearing or visual impairments.

If you have questions concerning accessibility, contact your local disability coalition, Easter Seal Society affiliate, or write to the USDA AgrAbility Project, Breaking New Ground (BNG) Resource Center at 1146 AGEN, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1146. You can call BNG toll free at 1-800-825-4264.


Identifying Needed Equipment

Audio-Visual Equipment

The type of audio visual (A/V) equipment required depends upon the format of the program and the material to be covered. Also, the size of the group and the facilities will impact the choice of equipment. A VCR and monitor are almost always needed for lecture-style workshop presentations because of the wide range of instructional materials available on videocassette.

The following A/V equipment will be sufficient for most types of programs.

* VHS videocassette player and monitor. You should have one monitor for every 30 to 40 people.

* Overhead projector

* Carousel slide projector

* Large projection screen

* Portable microphone and loudspeaker (for auditoriums or outside programs with large groups)

Farm Equipment for Demonstrations

Utilizing equipment in safety demonstrations helps participants visualize the concepts being presented. The types of farm equipment required will depend on the topics selected for the program and the type of farming done in your community. The following types of machinery are commonly used for workshops, and are appropriate for the sample demonstrations described in Chapter 9.

* Older model tractor, without ROPS or other safety equipment

* Newer tractor with safety features, including ROPS or cab, SMV emblem, lights, and PTO master shield

* PTO-driven implement for entanglement demonstration (e.g., rotary mower, post hole digger)

Additional machinery (optional, depending on your program)

* Combine with corn or grain head

* Gravity flow grain wagon

* Grain auger or elevator

* Manure spreader, hay baler, or other machines common to your area

Coordinating Equipment for Presenters

Before your program, contact all speakers to determine their A/V and other equipment needs. For workshops held at schools or other locations where such equipment is available, be sure to reserve the equipment in advance. The following is a sample form that can be used when confirming equipment needs with your workshop presenters.

To view PDF on Presenter Planning Form (p21, PDF)


Gathering Community Support

In rural communities, farm safety and health workshops are well received by local businesses, organizations, and civic groups. The following organizations are usually willing to assist with planning, sponsoring, or conducting a farm safety workshop.

Cooperative Extension Service

The Cooperative Extension Service (CES) personnel in your county generally have extensive experience in developing educational programs. They can also provide access to the resources available through state Extension specialists at land grant institutions. Your county Extension Educators are often excellent candidates to serve as presenters for safety topics concerning agricultural machinery, farm chemicals, livestock, or grain handling. They should also be able to help promote the event through their newsletters and media contacts.


Agricultural equipment dealerships, feed and grain elevators, chemical suppliers, farm supply stores, and other rural businesses will often provide equipment, assist in organizing the program, and sometimes provide monetary sponsorship for refreshments, handout materials, or door prizes. Experts from rural businesses also make excellent presenters for topics in their respective areas of expertise. For example, a chemical dealer would be a natural choice for presenting information on safe pesticide storage and handling.

Farm Organizations

County Farm Bureau organizations, Granges, agricultural commodity groups, and other farm-related organizations have traditionally been avid supporters of farm safety and health efforts. Their involvement will help generate rural community support, as well as insure greater participation from their respective members. Farm organizations can also help identify volunteers, presenters, and local sponsors for your program.

Other Local Businesses

Small rural communities rely heavily on the farming industry for much of their business. Firms such as banks, retailers, restaurants, and others recognize the importance of the farm community to their business and are usually willing to help sponsor, conduct, or promote a program of this type.

Electric Utility Companies and Cooperatives

Electric companies and cooperatives have excellent educational materials and presentations concerning electrical safety. These programs, which specifically highlight the dangers of electricity on farms and in rural areas, are often very popular with younger audiences.

Civic Groups

Organizations such as Rotary, Lions Clubs, Optimists, and others might see a farm safety workshop as an excellent opportunity to provide service to the community. In addition to volunteer and monetary support, civic groups can provide excellent publicity for your program.

FFA and 4-H Groups

Youth groups are constantly looking for community service projects in which their members can participate. FFA chapters or 4-H clubs can provide much needed labor when promoting, setting up, and conducting the workshop. For children's workshops, older FFA and 4-H members can be utilized as tour guides, or even as instructors for certain topics. Some state FFA programs sponsor chapter safety awards, which can provide extra motivation for local chapters to become involved in community safety activities.

Law Enforcement and Emergency Services

Local police and emergency response agencies are very supportive of injury prevention activities. Police officers, firefighters, and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are excellent sources for a variety of presentations concerning safety and emergency response. Simulated farm rescues, such as extricating a dummy from farm machinery, make exciting demonstrations, and can reinforce important safety messages by showing the consequences of bypassing safety measures.

Hospitals and Other Health Related Organizations

Health-care providers are great supporters of injury and illness prevention efforts. Such groups might provide speakers (e.g., first aid, emergency response) or educational materials (e.g., first aid kits, booklets, etc.) for workshops that focus on rural health-related issues. In some cases, the local hospital might provide free or reduced charge services for participants, such as blood or cholesterol screenings, hearing and vision tests, or skin cancer screenings.

News Media

Invite local newspaper, radio, and TV personnel to participate in the planning of your farm safety program. This will help to ensure greater publicity for your workshop. A series of public service announcements on farm safety and health can be used to generate interest in your program. Follow-up reports on the event can extend the efforts of the workshop beyond the event itself, and deliver the safety message to a larger audience. See Chapter 6 for more information on publicizing your workshop.


Publicizing Your Workshop

Good publicity increases the attendance of a program and promotes awareness of farm safety and health. In fact, the impact from the media coverage of a farm safety event should exceed the impact of the event. If well organized, pre and post event coverage will reach far more people with the safety message. Sometimes, local sponsors are willing to purchase advertising to promote your workshop. However, the majority of your publicity will be generated through news media or other public forums. Newspapers, radio stations, and even television stations in rural communities often produce a regular agricultural news program, and are usually willing to publicize community activities of this type. The local newspaper, radio station, or television station may even want to develop a feature story on farm safety in conjunction with a story on your workshop.

As the farm safety workshop organizer, you should develop a "Promotion Plan" as you prepare for your event, and identify someone on your planning committee to serve as a "media liaison" or publicity coordinator. It may also be useful to include a member of the local media on your committee. The following table is an example of a promotion plan developed for a farm safety day-camp.

To view PDF on Presenter Planning Form (p28, PDF)

Though many parts of this example promotional plan are optional, the basic framework can apply to most situations. The key point is to repeat your message often, and to utilize a variety of media outlets. When media representatives contact you, be prepared to provide a brief summary of the most important information. Remember, allow plenty of time to involve your local media early, and consider their deadlines in planning your promotional activities.

The following sections provide more detailed information on developing news releases and public service announcements (PSAs) for promoting your workshop.

Developing a News Release

News releases should be as brief as possible, but must contain all critical information intended for the audience. The following questions should be answered in the first paragraph, or the "lead," of the news release:

What is the program?

Who should attend?

When is it?

Where is it?

After answering these questions, include a short description of the workshop, and why the topic is important. Comments and background statistics from you or another workshop organizer or sponsor can be presented as "quotes" to provide a "human interest" element to the article.

Be sure to list the sponsors of the program, and provide a name and phone number so interested persons can call for more information. If appropriate, provide specific instructions on how people should preregister for the workshop.

News releases should be typed and double spaced for easy reading and editing. As the person submitting the article, your name should be provided as the "source." Include your phone number in case the editor or reporter has questions. The following sample news release has been included to assist you in developing a release for your workshop.

To view PDF on Publicizing Your Workshop (pp30-34, PDF)

Public Service Announcements

In addition to providing publicity for you workshop, public service announcements (PSAs) are an excellent method of increasing public awareness about farm safety and health issues. Radio stations are encouraged to devote programming time to public service announcements, and are usually willing to work with community groups wishing to promote farm safety.

Most PSAs consist of 30-second (and sometimes 10-, 15-, or 60-second) "sound bites" that address a single issue. Normally, the text or script, for PSAs is provided to station officials to record. Many stations, however, encourage community members to record their own PSAs. Hearing a friend or neighbor on the radio will often generate more interest than a professionally produced announcement. A trip to the station for a short recording session may be required. This visit provides a great opportunity, particularly for children, to learn what happens behind the scenes at a radio station, and to be heard on the air in the local community.

The following section provides several sample 30-second PSAs addressing a variety of farm safety topics. These announcements, or similar PSAs on safety issues to be addressed in your workshop, can be used to "hook" your audience and announce your event. Portions of the following samples enclosed with a [bracket] may be replaced with brief messages about a safety workshop. Remember to maintain the basic 30-second or 60-second format when modifying PSA scripts. You may wish to consult your local radio station for additional assistance in producing effective PSAs for your event.

Farm Chemical Safety: (30 sec)

We at (your organization) want to remind you to protect yourself from exposure to agricultural chemicals. Always follow label directions when working with pesticides, and wear the proper personal protective equipment, such as gloves, goggles or respirator, as specified on the label. [Remember, your good health is important to your family, your friends, and all of us in (your county).]


Posters are an effective means of promoting programs within communities. An attractive, well-designed poster can help generate interest in your workshop. Posters should be simple in design and provide the most vital information, such as date, time, location, highlights of the program (why people should attend), and a phone number to call for information. You may also include information on special features (special guests, unique programs) or incentives (T-shirts, door prizes) that may encourage people to attend. In terms of design, your poster should use bold, dark text on a light, or brightly colored background. A sample poster design is provided on the following page.

It is important to remember that even the most cleverly designed poster is useless unless people see it, and see it early enough to make plans. Common sense tells us that the more places you display your poster, and the longer you display it, the more people will receive your message. Good places to display a poster so that it reaches rural and farm audiences include farm supply stores, co-ops, feed stores, and equipment dealerships. You should also consider other "high-traffic" centers, such as grocery stores, convenience stores, popular restaurants, and large discount stores. Churches, youth centers, and medical clinics are also good places in which to reach people interested in safety.


Brochures are often used as "companion pieces" to posters and other forms of promotion, and may be distributed with posters or used as a "direct marketing" tool in mailings to "target groups," such as 4-H leaders, farm organization members, or school teachers. The information in the brochure may be very similar to that on the poster, but can provide details on the program, specific workshop topics, sponsors, and registration information.

Brochures are generally designed in a threefold format so they can be sent more easily through the mail. Your brochure doesn't need to be fancy, but it should be attractive and "uncluttered." You may choose to have someone on your committee design the brochures and posters using some type of desktop publishing computer software, or you may wish to ask someone from the local print shop to donate "in-kind" services in the form of designing and printing your promotional materials. A sample brochure designed for a farm safety day-camp is included at the end of this chapter.


Promotional efforts can often be enhanced by offering additional enticements, or incentives, for people to attend your event. Incentives may include sponsored "give-aways" such as T-shirts, first aid kits, or videos that every participant receives, or door prizes awarded to persons traveling the farthest or bringing the most people with them. Meals and "celebrity" guests or presenters can provide additional inducement for people to attend.

To view PDF on Publicizingng Your Workshop (pp36-37, PDF)


Finding Appropriate Teaching Resources

There are a variety of resources available that can enhance the quality of any farm safety workshop. Three common resource formats include (1) printed materials, such as leader's guides, safety brochures, quizzes, coloring books, and safety check lists; (2) audiovisual materials, including videos, slide sets, and overhead transparencies; and in some locations, (3) portable displays and demonstrations. In addition, there are numerous resource people with specialized training that are available in most communities to assist in presenting safety information. This chapter is designed to help you become more familiar with some of the available resources and how to access them.

Rural Health and Safety Resource Directories

Many Extension safety leaders and safety organizations across the country have published resource directories of safety information available in their state. For example, the Indiana Rural Safety and Heath Council regularly publishes a directory listing hundreds of films, videos, publications, and other resources available in Indiana. For more information on obtaining a safety resource directory for your state contact your local office of the Cooperative Extension Service, or the state Extension safety leader at your land grant institution. For a copy of the Indiana Rural Health and Safety Resource Directory, write:

Indiana Rural Safety and Health Council

1146 Agricultural Engineering Building

Purdue University

West Lafayette, IN 47907-1146

Audiovisual Materials

High quality audiovisual materials provide diversity to a farm safety workshop, and can be very effective in vividly reinforcing a particular safety message in a very short amount of time. In the past few years, a large number of excellent videos on various farm safety topics have been produced and are available for purchase or rent. The following sampling of videos are available from the Instructional Media Center at Purdue University (317-494-6742). Similar videos are likely available in most states.

Agricultural Accidents and Rescue Series CA*

Designed for rural first response personnel including fire, rescue, and emergency medical services. Covers technical information on rescue and extraction from various types of agricultural accidents.

(Producer: The Pennsylvania State University)

* Videos are generally classified for age groups according to the following scale:

E = Elementary J = Junior High S = Senior High C = College A = Adult

Audiovisual Materials

Agricultural Injuries and Children 38 minutes JSCA

Dr. William E. Field, Purdue University, discusses children and agricultural injuries and the importance of protecting agriculture's greatest resource, our children. Includes ideas for protecting farm children from farm hazards.

(Producer: New York Center for Agricultural Medicine)

Agricultural Tractor Safety 24 minutes JSCA

Explains that tractor accidents are the leading cause of death for farm and ranch workers and that most of these accidents can be prevented. Shows mannequins being crushed and mangled in accidents while making a strong case for rollover protective structures, seat belts, PTO shields, and prohibiting extra riders.

(Producer: Purdue University)

ATV Safety on the Farm 17 minutes JSCA

Offers a concise overview of ATV safety basics for both farm operators and their employees. Although the video focuses on farming activities, the information is beneficial to anyone using ATV's for utility operations. Driving procedures and personal protective equipment are discussed in detail.

(Producer: The Ohio State University)

Dairy Safety, It's No Accident 28 minutes JSCA

This film discusses a variety of safety concerns relating to dairy farming, including animal handling techniques and the hazards of various types of milking parlors. Also the proper handling and storage of dairy chemicals are stressed.

(Producer: California Polytechnic State University)

Driveline Safety...and You 24 minutes JSCA

Farm broadcaster Orion Samuelson discusses accident prevention when using agricultural equipment drivelines. The video also advises the viewer how to use and maintain a driveline properly and points out correct operating procedures.

(Producer: Agricultural Driveline Manufacturers Association)

Farm and Ranch Electrical Safety 19 minutes SCA

The risk of electric shock is an ever-present hazard in modern agriculture. Radio personality Wey Simpson explains how to properly handle irrigation equipment, how to safely wire and ground electrical systems, and what to do when the worst happens.

(Producer: University of Idaho)

Audiovisual Materials

Farm and Ranch Equipment Safety 19 minutes JSCA

Farm broadcaster Bob Tallman narrates the program and discusses many important safety considerations for farm and ranch equipment. Emergency medical personnel discuss accident situations they have experienced involving equipment, and they offer advice on accident prevention.

(Producer: University of Idaho)

Farm Chemical Safety Is in Your Hands 12.3 minutes SCA

The importance of proper chemical mixing and handling are stressed. Concepts such as toxicity and risk are discussed in detail. Proper personal protective equipment for chemical handling, including gloves, goggles, and more, are described.

(Producer: National Agricultural Chemical Association)

Farm Safety, A Second Chance 14.3 minutes SCA

Three families who have been involved in serious farm accidents describe the devastating effects of farm injuries. The speakers highlight the importance of safety consciousness for both children and adults on the farm. The film focuses on attitudes and awareness of farm safety in general, rather than targeting a specific type of accident.

(Producer: Ontario Department of Agriculture)

For the Rest of Your Life 16 minutes SCA

Instructs on the precautions to be used when handling anhydrous ammonia as a fertilizer. Reports on the agricultural uses of anhydrous ammonia, why it can be dangerous, what accidents can happen, and how to prevent eye injuries or permanent eye damage when using anhydrous ammonia.

(Producer: Iowa State University)

John Deere Consolidated Safety Video 87 minutes SCA

Contains eleven segments on such farm safety topics as safety attitudes, bypass starting, safety and labels, lawn mowers, combines, tractors, and others.

(Producer: Deere & Company)

Kids Talk Farm Safety Stuff 7 minutes EJ

This short film has a group of young farm children describing various hazards on the farm. Animals, farm machinery, ponds, and other potential hazards are described by the kids. This film is an excellent way of introducing farm safety concepts to children.

(Producer: Farm Safety 4 Just Kids)

Audiovisual Materials

Plan to Get Out Alive - Family Fire Safety Video 45 minutes JSCA

Developed and narrated by Dr. Frank Field, this tape provides important steps to prevent and survive fires. The film uses real-life footage and concise instructions for fire safety, and is excellent for schools, church groups, 4-H clubs, and others interested in protecting themselves from fire dangers.

(Producer: WCBS News, New York)

Playing it Safe with Agricultural Pesticides 15 minutes SCA

Addresses the importance of reading, understanding, and practicing directions specified on chemical product labels. Provides practical safety precautions for protecting both the environment and those handling and applying pesticides. An explanation of the various agrochemical label classifications is also included. A lesson plan accompanies the video.

(Producer: Highest Profit Corporation)

Sawdust 18 minutes EJA

Covers a wide variety of hazards encountered by youngsters in both town and country. Topics covered include highway and playground safety, as well as farm hazards such as tractors and flowing grain.

(Producer: Indiana Rural Safety and Health Council)

Tractor Accidents - It's Not Gonna Happen to Me 24 minutes SCA

Deals exclusively and thoroughly with tractor safety with respect to four areas: pre-operation safety, tractor transportation safety, operation safety, and emergency response procedures. Provides in-depth information about roll-overs. Comes with video teaching guide and student activities.

(Producer: California Polytechnic State University)

Tractor Safety is No Accident 17 minutes JSCA

Covers a broad range of subjects including inspecting the machine before operation, safe operating procedures, and the importance of shutting down the engine before attempting to make repairs.

(Producer: J.I. Case)


Publications exist on almost every conceivable topic related to farm safety. Brochures, bulletins, posters, and technical papers are available through your state Extension Service, organizations like the National Safety Council and Farm Safety 4 Just Kids, agricultural equipment manufacturers, agricultural organizations, and federal agencies, including the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Consumer Product Safety Commission. A few phone calls can generate more material than you can efficiently use in one safety workshop. Be careful not to overwhelm participants with printed material. A few key pieces that effectively address your objectives will have more impact than a bushel of unrelated items. Be prepared to pay for multiple copies of most material. In many cases, sponsors may be willing to cover the cost of selected items. You may wish to incorporate the cost of handouts in the registration fee.

Leaders' Materials

Careful Country Teacher's Kit

A comprehensive educational resource designed to help teachers, parents, and others teach injury prevention principles to rural and farm children. The Teacher's Kit is structured around the 24-page Careful Country Farm Safety Coloring and Activity Book, which uses animal characters and "parent alerts" to depict the primary health and safety hazards to farm children. The kit includes lesson plan, fact sheets, camera-ready handouts, and an 18-minute video entitled Sawdust.

Available from:

Indiana Rural Safety and Health Council

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Purdue University

West Lafayette, IN 47907

Teaming Up -A Farm Safety Walkabout For Kids

A resource designed for organizing a farm safety "walkabout" for farm families. Includes suggested motivation techniques and activities designed for children.

Available from:

Farm Safety 4 Just Kids

PO Box 458

Earlham, IA 50072

Farm and Ranch Safety Management Instructor's Guide

Assists teachers in planning agricultural safety lessons.

Available from:

Local John Deere dealer, or

Hobar Publications

1234 Tillar Lane

St. Paul, MN 55112

Emergency Medical Treatment: Adults & Children (26 pages each)

These publications, produced in cooperation with the National Safety Council, are designed to provide life saving first-aid procedures for a variety of emergency situations. An easy-to-read format makes these manuals excellent references.

Available from:

RPM, Inc.

P.O. Box 616

Oshkosh, WI 54902

Farm Accident Rescue (35 pages)

This handbook is used to familiarize emergency and rescue personnel with common farm accident situations and how to deal with them safely. Machinery upsets, grain bin entrapments, equipment entanglements, and many other scenarios are discussed. Recommended rescue procedures and necessary equipment are emphasized.

Available from:

Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service

152 Riley-Rubb Hall

Cornell University

Ithaca, NY 14853

First on the Scene (46 pages)

This manual provides appropriate first response procedures for the first person on the scene of a farm accident. Designed for the farm family, the manual uses simple flowcharts to direct the actions of the first responder.

Available from:

Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service

152 Riley-Rubb Hall

Cornell University

Ithaca, NY 14853


Most county Extension offices and land grant institutions have access to safety-related brochures and pamphlets that are suitable as handouts for farm safety workshops.

In Indiana, for example, the following titles are available:

Beware of Flowing Grain Dangers

Beware of Machine Hazards

Beware of On-Farm Manure Storage Hazards

Chain Saw Safety

Dressing Up the Farm Family

Protecting Your Hearing

Safety with Farm Tractors

Using Anhydrous Ammonia Safely

Using Grain Harvesting Equipment Safely

Using Hay and Forage Harvesting Equipment Safely

Sources of Additional Safety Information

The following represent only a sample of the organizations and information sources you may wish to contact while planning your safety workshop.

Child Safety

Farm Safety 4 Just Kids

P.O. Box 458

Earlham, IA 50072-0458

Tel. (515) 758-2827

Rural Indiana Safer Kids Project

Purdue University

1146 Agricultural Engineering Bldg.

West Lafayette, IN 47907-1146

Tel. (317) 494-5013

Fax (317) 496-1115

The National SAFE KIDS Campaign

Children's National Medical Center

111 Michigan Avenue, NW

Washington, D.C. 20010-2970

Tel. (202) 884-4993

Children's Safety Network

Rural Injury Prevention Resource Center

National Farm Medicine center

1000 North Oak Avenue

Marshfield, WI 54449

Tel. (715) 389-4999

Fax (715) 389-4950

Electrical Safety

Local utility company

Local rural electric cooperative

Farm and Ranch Safety

National Safety Council, Agricultural Division

1121 Spring Lake Dr.

Itasca, IL 60143-3201

Tel. (708)285-1121

Farm Safety Association, Inc.

340 Woodlawn Rd. West

Guelph, Ontario


National Institute for Farm Safety, Inc.

2-70 Agriculture Building

Columbia, MO 65211

Fire Prevention

Local fire department

National Fire Protection Association

1 Batterymarch Park

Quincy, MA 02269

General Safety

State affiliate of the National Society to Prevent Blindness

State affiliate of the National Safety Council

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

230 Dearborn Street, Room 2945

Chicago, IL 60604

Tel. (312)353-8260

Rural Health

American Heart Association

American Lung Association

American Red Cross

Arthritis Foundation

State Department of Health

State Food & Drug Administration

State Mental Health Association

State Poison Center

Outdoor Recreation Safety

State Department of Natural Resources

Traffic Safety

State Department of Traffic Safety

State Police

State Sheriff's Association


Wrapping Up

Recognize the Sponsors, Speakers, and Workers

Farm safety workshops depend upon the support and assistance of many people and organizations. After the workshop, remember to recognize and thank those individuals and groups for the support they provided.

"Thank You" Notes

The most effective way to recognize and express appreciation to those individuals or organizations who assisted with a program is to send them a "Thank You" note. Send notes as soon after the workshop as possible. Include everyone who assisted with the program, such as members of the organizing committee, sponsors, or speakers. A simple, personal handwritten message will often have more meaning to the receiver than a formal letter, particularly a "form letter," typed on fancy stationery. Personal thank-yous sent by program participants are another excellent means of showing appreciation to workshop sponsors.

Media Announcements

Publicly recognizing sponsors and helpers is often appropriate, particularly if your workshop is sponsored by local businesses. Submitting a short thank-you note that lists the program contributors in the local newspaper is an excellent method of providing this public recognition. Businesses or organizations will generally be more willing to assist with future service-oriented projects if they receive positive public exposure for their contribution.



Evaluations offer a means of measuring the success of a farm safety workshop. Participants completing an evaluation at the conclusion of a program can express what they liked or disliked about the program, and offer suggestions and ideas for future events.

In a limited sense, evaluations can also provide an indication of the impact of the workshop. If designed properly, an evaluation may provide information about participants' attitudes, or their intentions to make improvements or change safety practices. It should be noted that changes in attitude, and particularly changes in actual behaviors, are difficult to measure. It is recommended that you consult with a safety education specialist when developing an evaluation for this purpose.

Preparing the Evaluation Form

The most effective evaluations are those that are easy for the participants to complete. An evaluation form that allows individuals to grade or rank each segment of the workshop on a simple scale should provide enough feedback to indicate which portions of the program were most successful. Always invite participants to offer suggestions for improving future workshops.

To view PDF on Sample Evaluation Form (p51, PDF)


Sample Farm Safety Lessons and Demonstrations

53 Sample Farm Safety Lessons and Demonstrations

The following short demonstrations can be used to provide valuable information for all types of farm safety programs. Most utilize some type of simulation to illustrate the principles involved when "accidents" occur.

The lessons can be adapted for audiences of any age group, and require only a minimum of equipment and expense. You need not be an "expert" presenter to present these demonstrations. Each of the following lesson outlines provides instructions for conducting the demonstration, and lists key points and questions to help promote discussion among members of the audience.

Two lesson outlines are provided for demonstrations in each of the following general topic areas:

* Tractor Safety

* Power Take-Off (PTO) Safety

* Grain Handling Safety

* Pesticide Safety

* Emergency Response

Tractor Safety

Tractor Overturn


Educate audience about causes of tractor overturns, means of preventing tractor overturns, and reducing the frequency and severity of injuries resulting from tractor overturns.

Demonstration Aids Required

* Remote controlled, battery-operated toy tractor

* Ramp

* Weight sled and hitching device for attaching weights to the tractor

* Weights

Conducting the Demonstration

Sideways Overturns - Use the ramp and toy tractor to demonstrate how driving across a slope rather than straight up or down the slope will cause tractor rollovers.

Rear Overturns - Hitch the weight sled to the drawbar of the toy tractor and drive the tractor forward. The tractor's front wheels will not come off the ground. Then hitch the weight higher on the tractor, such as near the seat or cab. Towing the heavy weight sled should pull the front tires off the ground and potentially cause a rear overturn.

Effect of Ballast and Front Weights - If possible, attach front end weights to the toy tractor and demonstrate the effect of the weights on the potential for overturns. (Driving up a steep slope will be safer with proper ballast, and reduce the number of rear overturns).

Effect of ROPS - If possible, show the benefits of ROPS by performing a roll-over using a tractor with ROPS (cab or bar, with "seat belt") and one without ROPS. The visual impact of this demonstration can be enhanced if a small cloth doll is placed in the operator seat.

Discussion Questions

* Who in this group has ever driven a farm tractor? (children's workshops)

* What age did you first drive a tractor?

* Do you know anyone who has been injured or involved in a tractor overturn?

Key Points to Discuss

* Tractor overturns are the largest single cause of death on the farm.

About 20 - 25% of all farm fatalities are the result of rollovers.

* 80 to 90% of all rollovers are to the side.

* Factors involved with side rollovers are speed, slopes, and rough terrain.

* Rear overturns result from either improper ballasting or high load hitching.

* ROPS provide protection for the operator in the event of an overturn.

* ROPS are less effective if you do not wear your seat belt.

* Extra riders cannot be secured within the protective zone of the ROPS, even in cab equipped tractors. Passengers, especially children, should never be allowed.

Tractor and Equipment Runover


Inform audience about the risks involved with being an extra rider on farm tractors or equipment.

Demonstration Aids Required

* Tractor without a cab or ROPS and some type of trailing implement

* Tractor with a cab

* Small child 4 - 8 years of age

Conducting the Demonstration

With the older non-ROPS equipped tractor in a stationary position, have the youngster sit on the seat. Point out how difficult it would be to operate the tractor as well as supervise a small child. Then have the child sit on the operator's lap or fender and point out the potential for distractions to the operator and the possibility of falls from the equipment.

On the cab equipped tractor, conduct the same demonstration, pointing out that children and adults can fall from enclosed tractor cabs, resulting in serious injury or death. Describe how easily a small child could engage the PTO or bump the hydraulic control levers in the cab while the operator went back to work on a piece of machinery.

Discussion Questions

* How many of you have ever been an "extra rider" on a tractor or other piece of equipment?

* How many seats are on this tractor?

* In addition to injuries from a fall, what else might happen to someone riding on the tractor's drawbar?

* If there is only one seat, where did you sit if the seat was already taken?

* Do you allow your children to ride on the tractor with you? If so, why?

* Do you allow your children to play in traffic areas, or where farm machinery is stored, and repaired?

Key Points to Discuss

* Tractor and equipment runovers are the leading cause of farm-related deaths for children under 12 years old.

* Most of these deaths involved extra riders or children who were playing in the work area. Children (and adults) can fall from enclosed tractor cabs, resulting in serious injuries or death.

* Small children are difficult to see from tractors and other farm equipment, and are at high risk because they do not recognize the dangers of moving machinery.

Power Take-Off Safety

Speed of Equipment and PTO Entanglements


Illustrate in a memorable way the speed with which farm equipment

entanglements can occur.

Demonstration Aids Required

* Lace-up type of boot or shoe with a dangling "shoestring" about 25-30 feet long (use twine or cord for the shoestring)

* Tractor and PTO powered machine (this demonstration is most effective when used in conjunction with the "PTO Entanglement" demonstration described in the following lesson)

Conducting the Demonstration

Obtain two volunteers from the audience. Let one hold the boot and have the other grab the end of the shoestring which is coiled inside. After asking the following questions and discussing the key points, ask the individual with the shoestring to begin walking and see how long the shoestring is.

This demonstration can be made more interesting by creating a scenario in which one person is sitting on the tractor seat and sees his/her partner get a shoestring caught in the PTO shaft while working. Talk about how the amount of time required for a person to react and shut off the PTO will be approximately 3 to 4 seconds. Then see how long a shoestring must be to provide sufficient reaction time. You may also illustrate this demonstration on a chalkboard by calculating the length of string which will be entangled during the 3 to 4 seconds required to respond.

Discussion Questions

* Do you know anyone who has been injured by becoming entangled in a PTO or other farm equipment?

* How did those injuries occur?

* How fast do PTO shafts rotate?

* How fast can a person react to an emergency?

* Do you think you could shut off a machine quickly enough to prevent an injury if you saw a friend's clothes get caught in rotating parts?

Key Points to Discuss

* Equipment and PTO entanglements cause some of the most serious injuries on the farm.

* Entanglements are usually caused by clothing or shoestrings being caught in rotating or moving equipment.

* PTOs are designed to operate at 540 rpm or 1000 rpm.

* It takes a human about 1 to 2 seconds to recognize an emergency situation, and about 2 more seconds to take any action.

* A PTO shaft (3.5 in diameter) rotating at 540 rpm can wrap between 25-33 feet of shoestring during the 3 to 4 seconds it takes to react.

(L(ft) = diameter (in)*[[pi]]*time (sec)*540 rpm*(1 min/60 sec)*(1 ft/12 in)

PTO Entanglement


Show the causes and potentially devastating effects of entanglement on a rotating PTO shaft, and how fast such an incident can occur.

Demonstration Aids Required

* Tractor and PTO powered machine (a rotary mower is often used for these demonstrations because they are readily available)

* Dummy made from disposable or discarded coveralls stuffed with newspaper or straw

* Twine for tying dummy to PTO shaft

Conducting the Demonstration

Before the presentation, tie the dummy's leg to the yoke of the PTO shaft near the tractor. This simulates a shoestring being caught on the rotating shaft and ensures that the dummy will suffer some damage. After discussing the provided key points with the audience, start the tractor and engage the power take-off to entangle the "victim." You might want to experiment with this demonstration a couple of times before doing it in front of an audience.

Caution!! Only individuals familiar with the equipment should be allowed to conduct this demonstration. Never attempt to entangle string, clothing, or a dummy in a revolving shaft.

Discussion Questions

* Do you know anyone who has been injured by becoming entangled in a PTO or other farm equipment?

* How did those injuries occur?

* How fast do PTO shafts rotate?

* What types of injuries result from PTO entanglements?

* How do we prevent PTO-related injuries?

Key Points to Discuss

* PTO entanglements are one of the leading causes of disabling injuries on the farm.

* Entanglements are usually caused by clothing or shoestrings being caught in rotating or moving equipment.

* There is no way to predict the injuries that might result from a PTO entanglement.

* Common injuries include severe bruises, cuts, lacerations, fractures, amputations, spinal cord injuries, or death.

* Prevent PTO accidents by always keeping guards and shields in place, wearing snug fitting clothing with no dangling strings, and staying away from the rotating PTO shafts.

* The bottom line is when attempting to adjust, service, or maintain PTO operated equipment--SHUT IT OFF!

Grain Handling Safety

Flowing Grain Entrapment


Show the dangers of flowing grain by demonstrating how a person can become caught and suffocate in grain storage facilities or transport vehicles.

Demonstration Aids Required

* Model grain bin or wagon filled with corn, popcorn, wheat, or other grain

* Small doll

Making a Model Grain Bin

A clear plastic or Plexiglas bottle or container 10 to 14 inches in diameter can be used to make a "bin." Five gallon water bottles with the top spout cut off have been used successfully for this purpose. Cut a 1" round hole in the center of the bottom of the container. Use a rubber stopper or threaded PVC cap to close the opening.

Conducting the Demonstration

Discuss how flowing grain entrapments occur. Place the toy "victim" in the model grain bin. Explain that with no grain flowing, a person will not sink in the grain, unless there is a void caused by a surface crust. Start the "unloading auger" by removing the plug from the bottom of the model. The victim will be drawn into the flowing grain and pulled to the auger where the grain is leaving the bin. Point out the speed of the entrapment in the model is no faster than in "real life."

Discussion Questions

* Have you ever heard of someone suffocating in grain?

* Will I sink if I walk on the grain in a bin or wagon when the auger is not running? * What state of matter does flowing grain most resemble: solid, liquid, or gas?

* How deep must you be buried to be helpless in flowing grain?

* How long do you think it would take for a person to become helpless in flowing grain? * What must be done to rescue someone submerged in grain?

Key Points to Discuss

* The most common cause of grain bin entrapments is becoming caught in flowing grain. Another cause is the collapse of spoiled, crusty "bridged" grain.

* Flowing grain acts like a liquid, creating a funnel effect pulling grain from the top of a bin towards the bottom.

* Within 3 to 4 seconds, an adult caught in flowing grain may be submerged up to his knees and unable to free himself.

* In the event of a grain entrapment, never assume the victim is dead. Shut off all augers, start ventilating fans (but not driers), and summon emergency assistance. The bin must be cut open to remove the grain from around the victim as quickly as possible.

* The victim of an entrapment will generally be found over the auger well or opening at the bottom of the bin or near the hopper door of a gravity flow wagon.

Auger Entanglement


Describe how an auger can "grab" and injure a hand or foot.

Demonstration Aids Required

* Two foot section of 4 inch auger tubing with flighting (can be made from part of an old auger and Plexiglas tubing)

* Glove

* Discarded auger guard

Conducting the Demonstration

This short demonstration is completed by holding a glove or other object near the end of the example auger and rotating the flighting. The flighting will quickly pull the glove into the tube. You can also have a volunteer place fingers on the exposed flighting and slowly rotate the flighting to draw the person's fingers toward the auger tube.

Caution!! Be very careful not to rotate the flighting too fast--you could cut the person's fingers.

Use the auger guard to demonstrate how it is designed to keep hands and feet away from the rotating auger, but does not guarantee against injury. Simply have a member of the audience stick his/her fingers through the wire mesh guard and explain that the fingers could still be caught or mangled in the auger. This step highlights that guards and shields are an essential part of injury prevention if kept in place, but not a substitute for being careful around machinery.

Discussion Questions

* What causes auger entanglements?

* Can you pull your hand back from an auger quickly enough to prevent being caught?

* What types of injuries result from auger intanglements?

* How do we prevent auger-related injuries?

* What is the other major hazard associated with grain augers?

Key Points to Discuss

* Auger entanglements cause very serious injuries, including amputations and lacerations.

* A rotating auger moves too fast for someone to prevent an entanglement if they come in contact with it.

* Entanglements are usually caused by clothing or shoestrings being caught in the rotating auger.

* Prevent auger injuries by always keeping guards and shields in place, wearing snug fitting clothing with no dangling strings, and keeping hands and feet away from exposed augers.

* Many farmers have been seriously injured or even killed when an auger they are moving comes in contact with overhead power lines.

Pesticide Safety

Personal Protective Equipment for Pesticides


Describe the basic types of personal protective equipment for mixing pesticides, as well as proper techniques for pouring a liquid chemical.

Demonstration Aids Required

* Rubber or neoprene gloves

* Long sleeved shirt or forearm protectors

* Splash-proof goggles

* Chemical jug filled with water (food coloring can be added)

* Bucket or tub to simulate chemical tank

Conducting the Demonstration

Place the personal protective equipment near the demonstration area in plain sight. Without mentioning the purpose of the demonstration or the protective gear, ask a volunteer from the audience to pour the contents of the "chemical" jug into the "tank." Point out the spillage that may occur and any contact the volunteer has with the container's contents. Next, have the volunteer put on the gloves, long sleeved shirt, and goggles before pouring the "chemical" a second time. When pouring the "chemical" the volunteer should hold the container sideways to allow the liquid to flow smoothly. Finally, the "chemical handler" should shake the container to remove any remaining "chemical." If the volunteer performs the task correctly, have the person explain each step. If not, have the volunteer start over, and explain the correct method for pouring a liquid chemical.

Discussion Questions

* Have you ever mixed chemicals?

* What personal protective equipment do you wear when working with chemicals?

* What parts of the body are most likely to come in contact with the chemicals you use?

* What is the most important piece of personal protective equipment when using farm chemicals?

* Why should you hold a chemical jug sideways when pouring, and why should you shake the jug to remove the last few drops of pesticide?

Key Points to Discuss

* Wear personal protective equipment when working with farm chemicals.

* The pesticide label will list the required protective equipment.

* Most pesticide exposure occurs on the hands and forearms.

* Wearing rubber gloves, long sleeves, and eye protection will eliminate about 99% of potential chemical exposures.

* Some highly toxic pesticides may require respirators, chemical proof coveralls, and other specialized equipment.

* Holding a liquid pesticide jug sideways while pouring prevents gurgling and splashing of the contents, while shaking the last few drops into the tank makes triple rinsing and disposal easier and saves a little money.

Triple Rinsing Chemical Containers


Explain proper procedure for triple rinsing chemical containers, including the use of spray nozzles that are sometimes used to replace the traditional triple rinse procedure.

Demonstration Aids Required

* 2 empty chemical jugs (clean)

* Bucket or tub to simulate chemical tank

* Rubber or neoprene gloves and splash-proof goggles

* Garden hose and water source

* Knife

* Triple rinsing spray nozzle

Conducting the Demonstration

Obtain a volunteer from the audience. Ask the volunteer to triple rinse the chemical jug as if he or she had just emptied the container into the tank. The volunteer should wear the personal protective equipment provided, and rinse and dump the contents of the jug into the tank three times. After completing the triple rinse, the volunteer should cut a slit in the bottom of the jug to prevent reuse of the container (this can be simulated, if you need the jug for more demonstrations). Next, have the same (or a different) volunteer use an approved triple rinse nozzle to rinse a container. The nozzle is designed to punch a hole in the container, and will provide an acceptable rinse in 30 seconds of continuous flushing.

Discussion Questions

* Why do we triple rinse chemical containers?

* Have you ever reused chemical containers for other purposes, or seen chemical jugs and buckets used around the farm?

* Why do we cut a slit in a perfectly good jug?

* Do you think a triple rinse nozzle will make rinsing containers easier?

Key Points to Discuss

* Triple rinsing of containers is required by law to prevent chemical contamination of the environment.

* Some farmers use chemical containers for storage, feed buckets, and other purposes, which is dangerous because pesticide residues may remain.

* Cutting a hole or slit in the bottom prevents the jug from being reused.

* Triple rinsing nozzles are government approved as a substitute for traditional triple rinsing.

* Nozzles have the advantages of water pressure to assist the rinsing action, and they punch a hole in the container, preventing reuse of the jug.

Emergency Response

Making an Emergency Phone Call


Describe the proper actions for notifying emergency services by phone, and highlight the importance of having emergency information posted by all phones.

Demonstration Aids Required

* Two telephones (can use toy phones)

* Phone book

* Paper listing emergency phone numbers, a farm's address and phone number, and directions to the farm

Conducting the Demonstration

Describe a scenario in which an individual is caught and injured in a piece of farm equipment. Have a volunteer use the telephone to make a mock call to the local EMS. The quality of the presentation can be enhanced by choosing your volunteer before the demonstration, and providing the person with instructions on what he or she is expected to do. The presenter will serve as the dispatcher. The volunteer will only have the telephone book to find emergency numbers. Once the call is made the dispatcher will ask the caller for the farm's phone number, address, and a description of the accident. Then the dispatcher will ask for directions to the farm. The caller should have difficulty giving directions and providing needed information because it is not easily accessible. Point out that panic would make the situation worse, especially if the caller was a child, a visitor to the farm, or someone unfamiliar with the area.

Repeat the activity, using a different volunteer. Place the information sheet near the phone. The sheet should provide phone numbers for EMS or the sheriff's office, eliminating the need to find it in a phone book. Then, the caller need only read the information on the sheet to provide the dispatcher with clear directions to the accident site. The caller should not hang up the phone until the dispatcher says to do so.

For added interest, use a stopwatch to compare the time required to successfully complete each call.

Discussion Questions

* Has anyone here had to make an emergency phone call?

* Do you have emergency phone numbers posted near your phone at home?

* Why should you include directions and the farm's address with the numbers?

* Do you have 9-1-1 service in your community?

* When should you hang up the phone when calling the EMS?

Key Points to Discuss

* Posting emergency numbers and directions to your home will speed contacting the EMS, and eliminates mistakes during a panic situation.

* Never hang up the phone until the dispatcher says to do so.

* Find out whether your community has 9-1-1 service.

* Provide a clear description of the accident so rescue personnel can prepare while driving to the farm.

* Do not panic!!

First Aid for Bleeding Injuries


Explain the proper actions for stopping severe bleeding in an emergency situation and techniques for applying direct pressure to a wound.

Demonstration Aids Required

* Basic first aid kit

* Bandage material such as gauze, towels, or cotton cloth

* Red water-soluble marker

* Latex surgical gloves

Conducting the Demonstration

This demonstration should be conducted by a person trained in first aid, such as a nurse or EMT. Obtain a volunteer from the audience to be an injury "victim" and draw a bleeding cut on his or her arm with the red marker. Tell the audience that the person has severe arterial bleeding and will die within minutes if the bleeding is not stopped. Ask another audience volunteer to stop the bleeding the best and quickest way possible with the materials available. The person should put on the gloves, make a pad with the bandage material, and apply direct pressure to the wound. Assume the victim bleeds through the bandage. The first aid provider should leave the bandage on the wound and add more clean material to the top of the bandage. A tourniquet should not be used. Explain that the vast majority of bleeding cases can be stopped with direct pressure, and that the use of a tourniquet nearly always means the loss of a limb. If bleeding continues, the first aid provider should apply additional bandages, elevate the injured part (if this can be done without causing further damage), or apply pressure at "pressure points" located at the femoral (leg) or brachial (arm) arteries. Be sure to point out the importance of wearing latex surgical gloves to prevent exposure to blood-borne diseases.

Discussion Questions

* What is the difference between arterial bleeding and venous bleeding?

* What materials will work for bandages in an emergency?

* When does direct pressure work to stop bleeding?

* Should you use a tourniquet for severe bleeding?

* Why should protective gloves be worn if available?

Key Points to Discuss

* Arterial bleeding is very fast, and appears to spurt out of a wound. Bleed ing from a vein is slower and oozes. Arterial bleeding is very serious.

* Nearly any type of clean cotton cloth, such as towels, will work for bandages.

* If no bandage material is available, apply direct pressure with your bare hand.

* Direct pressure works for the vast majority of severe bleeding cases.

* A tourniquet should only be used by trained medical professionals. Tourniquets disrupt circulation to the degree that the affected limb eventually needs to be amputated.

* If rubber gloves are available, wear them to prevent exposure to blood-borne diseases such as HIV or Hepatitis B.


Possible Workshop Topics

The following topics have all been used for farm safety and health workshops. Obviously, there is no way to cover all of the topics in a single workshop, or even a series of workshops. This list is included to provide ideas to help you in developing your own programs. Some of the topics may not directly relate to farm safety and health, but involve rural recreation and other subjects affecting farm families. Resource materials may be very limited for certain topics listed here, so be sure to locate resources and presenters before planning your workshop.

Farm Injury Statistics

* General farm injury statistics

* State statistics

* National statistics

* Childhood injury statistics

* Senior farmer injury statistics

* Costs of farm injuries

General Farm Safety Considerations

* Child safety on the farm

* Appropriate tasks for youth

* Farm wife's role in family safety and health

* Using a management approach to improve farm safety

* Developing a safety committee for your farm

* Developing a farm safety plan

* Conducting a farm safety and health inventory

* Planning a safe farmstead

* Livestock handling

* Farm safety considerations for senior farmers

Tractor Safety

* Safe tractor operation

* Preventing tractor rollovers

* Dangers of extra riders on farm equipment

* Operating tractors on public roads

* Importance of rollover protective structures

* Importance of pre-operation training

* Proper ballasting of farm tractors

* Importance of pre-operational safety checklist

* Front-end loader safety

* Slow moving vehicle (SMV) emblems and lighting

Machinery Safety

* General farm machinery safety

* Auger safety

* Combine or forage harvester operation

* Guarding and shielding of farm machinery

* PTO safety - PTO entanglement demonstration

* Safety during harvest season

* Safety during spring preparation and planting

* Hydraulic system safety

Grain Handling and Storage

* Preventing grain bin entrapments

* Preventing grain wagon entrapments

* Grain dust exposures

* Entrapment demonstration

* Causes of grain suffocations

First Response to Farm Emergencies

* Contacting the EMS

* Basic first aid


* Proper actions by the first person on the scene

* Extrication techniques for agricultural equipment entanglements

* Grain bin entrapment rescues

* First aid for chemical exposures

Farm Respiratory Hazards

* Overview of agricultural respiratory hazards

* Preventing dust exposures

* Manure and silo gases

* Chemical respiratory hazards

* Choosing a proper respirator

Agricultural Chemicals

* Pesticide handling safety

* Personal protective equipment for pesticides

* Pesticide container disposal

* Proper use of pesticide equipment

* Pesticide applicator training

* Anhydrous ammonia handling

Laws and Regulations

* EPA Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides

* OSHA and its implications for agriculture

* Hazardous Occupations Work Order for Agriculture

* Local, state, and federal hazardous waste disposal regulations

* Waste recycling programs

Shop and Farm Maintenance Safety

* Correct use of hand and power tools

* Arc welding safety

* Precautions for oxyacetylene welding and cutting

* Designing a safe farm shop

* Safe repair and maintenance of farm equipment

* Chain saw safety

* Rotary mower operation

* Safe use of lawn and garden tools

* Electrical safety

* Identifying electrical hazards

* Fire prevention on the farm

* Proper use of fire extinguishers

* Personal protective equipment for the shop

Rural Health

* Health screenings (cholesterol, blood pressure, lung function, etc.)

* Dangers of noise exposures

* Prevention of hearing loss among farm workers

* Hearing protection

* Prevention of skin cancer

* Farm-related respiratory impairments

* Dressing appropriately for the weather

* Preventing frostbite and hypothermia

* Avoiding and treating heat-related illnesses

* Prevention of back injuries

* Proper lifting techniques

* Importance of exercise

* Sources of stress and relationship to injuries

* Sources of assistance for stress-related problems

* Stress management

* Alcohol and drug use among farm populations

* Considerations for operating farm machinery while using prescription medications

Rural Recreation

* All-terrain vehicle operation

* Snowmobile safety

* Developing a farm pond safety plan

* Hunting safety considerations

* Firearm safety

* Horseback riding

Returning to Work Following an Injury

* Farming safely with a physical disability

* Assistive technology for farmers with physical impairments

* Disability awareness

To view PDF on Appendix (appendix, PDF)