Cooperative Extension Service
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907


Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service
Indiana Soil Conservation Service


Many Indiana pork operations generate large volumes of manure. For example, 500 finishing pigs produce nearly 3,000 cubic feet of manure a month, which is over 265,000 gallons a year. Swine manure is an economical fertilizer. The plant nutrients in manure can reduce a producer's costs up to $50 per acre. If mishandled, however, swine manure can contaminate surface and ground waters. Proper storage, handling and application of manure from pork production operations can protect Indiana's water resources and increase profits for animal and crop enterprises.

A Manure Management Plan (MMP) brings together information about crops, livestock, and manure handling for your farm. This information will help you develop a better long-term plan for maximizing the value of your swine manure.

Preparing the MMP takes some effort, but the results are reduced costs to your crop program and environmental protection.

A MMP includes:

Preparing the MMP takes some effort, but the results are reduced costs to your crop program and environmental protection.

Keep in mind:

Many publications describe in detail the collection, transport, and storage alternatives for handling manure from animal to storage. Use them to develop those portions of your MMP. Others detail crop nutrient needs under various conditions and can help assure that your crop needs are being met. See References near the end of this publication.

This publication concentrates on the timely application of manure nutrients to crops. It deals with the part of a Manure Management Plan that utilizes manure as a fertilizer. A summary of manure handling options is included, because they affect what is in storage. But, our purpose is to start with stored swine manure and include handling alternatives and descriptions of components needed by the system.


Pork producers select a manure handling system based on factors such as location, the size, type and use of their cropland, the number of animals, and the type of animal housing. Many options relate to the type of housing system - pasture, drylot, and enclosed. Here is a brief discussion of each system with design and management hints to minimize manure storage and application problems.

With all systems, divert rain and snowmelt runoff away from the manure handling system. Install gutters to direct roof runoff to a ditch or other diversion. Keep uncontaminated surface water away from lots, settling facilities, infiltration channels, outdoor storages, and animal traffic lanes. Channel contaminated lot runoff to adequate treatment, storage, and application systems.

Figure 1. Swine Manure Management Alternatives

Pastures usually do not need separate manure management facilities. However, drylot and enclosed systems need specific facilities for handling manure as a solid, a liquid, or both. Figure 1 illustrates how the manure flows within each system. All systems return all manure to the land with no discharge into Indiana waters.

Pasture System

Pasture no more than 10 sows and litters, or 50 growing-finishing pigs, per acre in Indiana. Rotate pastures to prevent overgrazing. Reduce erosion by providing stabilized areas (for example, a gravelled slope around a waterer) for feeding, watering, and animal sorting and handling. Maintain vegetative cover on steep slopes near streams to minimize soil erosion and polluted runoff. See Purdue University's publication WQ-7, in References.

Drylot Systems

The drylot systems and their space requirements are:

Because of potential odor problems, select a site downwind and some distance from neighboring residences and businesses. Avoid potential ground water pollution: never put a drylot system near a sinkhole or abandoned well, or on a site known to be underlain with fractured limestone. A bedded mound can help reduce wallows and erosion, and makes removing some of the solid manure a little easier. Remove and renew bedded mounds frequently. (See PIH-33 for more information on odor control.)

Locate a drylot on a 4% to 6% slope for drain- age. (Earth-moving equipment can often create enough slope if necessary.) In addition, suggested slopes from feeders and waterers are 3/4" - 1 "/ft; from buildings, 1/2" - 3/4"7ft; and along drainage ways, 1/4" - 1/2"/ft. Slope building floors 1/4" - 3/4"7ft toward gutters or an open front.

Common manure handling equipment includes a tractor with scraper blade or bucket loader and a spreader. Solid manure from pens, including bedding, is usually hauled directly from the animal area to the field, or scraped to short-term storage when bad weather prevents field spreading. For a 10-day storage capacity, provide 2 cu ft/grow-finish pig. Scrape outdoor lots twice weekly.

Rain and snowmelt runoff from lots and solid manure storages is contaminated and must not flow directly into a watercourse. Scraping removes most of the solids from outdoor lot manure. To remove most of the remaining solids, channel runoff to a settling basin that has 1 cu ft of liquid capacity per 12 sq ft of lot area. Field spread solids periodically from the settling basin. See ID-114 in References.

Drain the liquids to an infiltration area where grass or other crops utilize the nutrients. The infiltration area is a low-slope channel where the liquids infiltrate the soil. Locate the area away from surface water and broken tile lines, but convenient for vegetation removal or harvest. Do not graze the infiltration area unless soil type and moisture conditions prevent soil compaction.

Lot runoff liquids also can be stored in a holding basin or treated in a lagoon. Although the required storage volumes are large, the liquids are a source of dilute nutrients and irrigation water.

Because of the wide variation in the concentration of nutrients in either solid or liquid manure from lots, no nutrient estimates are included here. Measure nutrients with chemical testing. Handle the nutrients just like the other solids and liquids discussed later in this publication.

Enclosed Systems

In enclosed housing systems, animals are under a roof at all times on solid, partly-slotted, or completely-slotted floors. When siting a housing unit, consider manure flowing by gravity from housing to storage.

Some housing systems generate manure handled as solids, such as solid-floor breeding and gestation units. Removal and handling equipment is about the same as suggested for drylot solids, especially with bedded pens. Mechanical scrapers also can be used.

Slats over below-floor gutters or storages are very common, and generally lead to handling manure as a liquid or slurry. Mechanical scrapers, run at least once and preferably twice daily, work well in gutters that are level so liquids do not run off. Flushed gutters or floors require large volumes of fresh or recycled water. Storages below slats tend to empty well by gravity drainage, especially if the manure is agitated.

Liquid Manure Handling Systems

Liquid manure is stored in concrete pits under slats or in an outdoor tank or earthen pit. Liquid manure can be put in a lagoon where it is both stored and treated. During the treatment, much of the nitrogen fertilizer value is lost. Equipment needed includes scraper blades or slotted-floors, manure pump and/or agitator, and liquid manure tanker or injection equipment. Liquid manure irrigating systems are also common.

Storages should be water-tight and at least 100 feet from any well or domestic water supply. Except for lot runoff, divert all surface drainage away from storage. Needed storage capacity depends on the number and size of the pigs, pen cleaning method, and the length of time between storage unloadings. For outdoor storage consider rain and snow.

Table 2 gives estimated manure production values for roofed animal housing with reasonable allowances for bedding and for spilled and cleaning water. An unroofed outdoor storage also stores rain and snow that fall on its surface between emptyings--typically the fraction of annual precipitation during the storage period, less normal evaporation, plus rain from a 25- year 24-hour storm.

Provide storage for at least 1.5 cu ft/sq ft of area in the drained lot and the channel leading to the storage to handle rainfall for 6 months.

Freeboard is clear space in the storage above the designed maximum liquid level. For pits under slats, leave room for adequate ventilating air and some reserve storage--perhaps one foot. For outdoor storages, freeboard is the guarantee that the storage will not overflow.

A lagoon is a treatment unit, and its design and location may be regulated because of potential leaching problems. It needs space for manure and rain plus a specified volume of dilution water. See ID-120, in References.

Keep long bedding and dry or frozen materials out of a liquid manure storage. Haul such material direct to the field. Frequent hauling of liquid manure reduces the size of storage and equipment needed, better distributes the labor load, and aids in reducing manure odors, as long as timing matches plant need and soil condition.

Agitate stored liquid manure before emptying the storage to reduce the sludge left in the storage and to make nutrient applications more uniform.

Gases escaping from agitated manure can be deadly for both humans and animals. Operate all ventilation fans and open doors and windows when agitating and removing manure stored in a building.


Organize information about your fields.

Organize information about your crops.

Organize information about your manure production.

Note that much of the information will not change every year--field descriptions, manure storage data, crops, and rotations. You don't have all the work to do every year, just a review of your plan.


The following worksheets help you match crop nutrient needs with the nutrients in the manure storages of your swine units. Decisions to be made include: Where and when do I apply manure and how much? The worksheets help make the calculations and organize the planning.

If you are expanding or developing a new operation, you may go through parts of the worksheets several times to consider alternatives.

Two inexpensive computer programs, AMANURE and MBUDGET, are available from Purdue University; see References. The programs help you rapidly change inputs and results to compare options.

Although the following example assumes under-floor manure pits, the worksheets (and the AMANURE and MBUDGET programs) can be used for open lots with runoff control, solid manure, and lagoons.


This example shows how to develop a MMP for a 250-sow farrow-to-finish operation with total slotted floors, deep pits, and all animals in enclosed buildings. A nitrification inhibitor will be added as the manure is injected from a 2750 gallon tanker wagon. There are four fields (220 acres) considered for manure application on this 480-acre farm. Cropping is based on a three-year rotation.

"A" Worksheets - Crop Data

List each field's basic information in Worksheet A.1. Enter the crops for three years' crop rotation in Worksheet A.2. Note: use longer rotations if they fit your operation.

In Worksheet A.3, list each crop's nutrient needs, based on anticipated yield and soil test results. Use data specific to your farm, if available, or the fertilizer recommendations for Indiana crops in Table 1. [Note: This table gives only some of the current fertilizer recommendation s for Indiana crops. Check AY-170, AY-171, AY-244, AY-268, or your local crop consultants for recommendations for your farm.] Note that N (nitrogen) depends on crop and average or expected yield; it is adjusted if the previous year's crop was soybeans (30 lb./a. carry over) or legume hay or pasture (40 lb./a. carry over). Recommended P (phosphorus) and K (potassium) fertilizer levels depend on the latest soil test results for the particular field - the P or K needed is the crop need at that field's P or K level.


Field #1, 160 bu corn. Soil test shows P = 20 ppm. Table 1 suggests that P205 needed for this crop is 60 lb./a.

In Worksheet A.3, the crop N, P, K needs for each field and for each year are from A.2. Where appropriate, deduct the legume carry over.

For Worksheet A.4, multiply the acres of each field, from A. 1, times the annual fertilizer recommendations for each field and crop, from A.3, to find the field nutrient needs for each field and each crop year.


Field #1, Year 1: 60 acres x 190 lb Avail. N needed per acre = 11,400 lb Available N needed for the whole field.

Note: "Available N" is the ammonia and organic nitrogen in the manure that is available to plants this year, after all losses have been accounted for.

To complete Worksheet A.4., total the nutrients (Avail. N, P205, and K2O) needed each year for all crops on fields that will receive manure. Note that the nitrogen amounts that legume s can use but do not require are not added into the column totals.


Nitrogen for Year 1: N required is 11,400 + 11,200 + 3,000 = 25,600. The legume in Field #3 can use an additional 8,400 lb N without causing excess N that might leach to ground water.

Even though, N applied to legumes is not required. P and K field values can be raised with manure to legumes.

Worksheet A.1. General field data

    Field                   Miles from                            Soil test
   number       Acres     manure storage  Soil type  Soil slope   (ppm)

                                mi                       %       P       K
     1           60            1/8        silt clay loam 2      20      60

     2           80            1/2         silt loam     2      10      60

     3           60            1/4          loam         4      10      80
     4           20            1/8          loam         6      50      95

Worksheet A.2. Crop rotation and expected yield

         Year-1                     Year-2                    Year-3

               Expected                  Expected                 Expected
    Crop     yield/acre        Crop    yield/acre         Crop  yield/acre
    Corn         160 bu        Corn        160 bu         Corn      160 bu

    Corn         120 bu      Soybeans       40 bu         Corn      120 bu

   Soybeans       40 bu        Corn        120 bu         Wheat      60 bu

Grass Pasture     6 tons  Grass Pasture     6 tons  Grass Pasture    6 tons

Worksheet A.3. Annual crop nutrient recommendations for 3-year rotations

   Field #   Avail. N, lb/acre      P2O5, lb/acre          K2O, lb/acre

          Yr-i     Yr-2  Yr-3   Yr-1   Yr-2    Yr-3  Yr-1      Yr-2   Yr-3
     1     190      190   190     60     60      60   145      145     145
     2     140   0(140)  110a     70     55      70   130      155     130
     3  0(140)     110a    60     55     70     110   115       90      80

     4     150     150    150      0      0       0      0       0      0
a Only 110 lb N is needed due to 30 lb N credit from last year's soybeans. 
Transfer data from Table 1 in Appendix or use your own fertilizer data.

Worksheet A.4. Total field nutrient needs

Multiply field acres (A.1. above) x N, P2O5, or K2O per acre for the crop (A.3. above).

Field       Avail. N, lb/field        P2O5, lb/field         K2O, lb/field

  #      Yr-1      Yr-2   Yr-3       Yr1i   Yr-2   Yr-3    Yr-1   Yr-2   Yr-3
  1     11,400    11,400  11,400    3,600  3,600   3,600  8,700  8,700   8,700
  2     11,200 0(11,200)   8,800    5,600  4,400   5,600 10,400 12,400  10,400
  3  0(8,400)a     6,600  3,600a    3,300  4,200   6,600  6,900  5,400   4,800
  4      3,000     3,000   3,000        0      0       0      0      0       0
TOTAL   25,600    21,000  26,800   12,500 12,200  15,800 26,000 26,500  23,900

Additional N that could be used by legumes if max. N given to them:

       (8,400)  (11,200)
a 3,600 means legumes need no N, but 40 bu/ac soybeans will use 140 lb N/ac (Table 1) if it is applied:
  140 x 60 acres = 8,400 lb N; 140 x 80 ac soybeans = 11,200 lb N.

"B" Worksheets - Manure Production

With an inventory of crop and field information completed, you are ready to inventory manure produced and its fertilizer value when applied to your crops. If you have laboratory analyses of manure in each of your storages, use those test results in the worksheets. Otherwise, Table 2 has good estimates for pork production. The table values are "as removed from storage" and include dilution, feed spillage, etc. They are averages of nutrient concentrations measured in many storages.

In Worksheet B.1, list the type of storage, type of animal, average number of animals that contribute manure to each storage (generally average pig capacity of building), portion of the year that the building is occupied, and annual manure production. Then, calculate monthly and daily average manure production and the total amount of manure you expect, using your own data or the estimates in Table 2.


Annual manure produced from farrowing, Storage #1:
       - Manure/year x No. of farrowing stalls x portion of year building is occupied (e.g., 47
         of 52 weeks/year)
       = 1,400 gal/year/sow & litter x 60 farrowing stalls x 0.90 weeks/year
       = 75,600 gal liquid manure/year
       =75,600/12 = 6,300 gal/month
       = 75,600/365=207 gal/day

In Worksheet B.2, enter the nutrient concentrations from your own test results or the averagel values in Table 2. Calculate the total of each nutrient in each storage.

Some application methods preserve more N for plant use than others. Nitrogen is lost largely to the atmosphere during manure handling unless it is injected or promptly incorporated. N is also lost in the soil before crops can use it by microbial immobilization, denitrification, and leaching, especially if no nitrification inhibitor is used. "Available nitrogen" is the amount of N available during the current crop season. Select an Application Factor from Table 3 to account for N losses between storage and plant uptake.


  Pounds nutrients/year = (gal liquid manure/year) x (1/1,000) x (lb nutrient/1000-gal of manure). 
For N, also multiply by the Application Factor, Table 3.

   75,600 gal/year =75.6 1000-gal/year

   Avail. N from farrowing (10.0 lb/1000 gal x 0.95 (Application Factor) = 9.5 lb avail. N/1000 gal):
   = 9.5 lb/1000-gal x 75.6 1000-gal/year
   = 718 lb/year in Storage #1

   lb P2O5 from farrowing:
   = 12 lb/1000-gal x 75.6 1000-gal/year
   =907 lb/year

  lb K2O from farrowing:
   = 11 lb/1000-gal x 75.600 1000-gal/year
   = 832 lb/year

Compute the other manure sources as in Worksheet B.2.

If a storage is filled with manure from more than one source, such as farrowing and nursery units illustrated in this example, calculate an average nutrient concentration for the storage. Divide the total P2O5 or K2O, lb nutrients/yr from Worksheet B.2. by the total volume (or weight) of manure added to the storage, gal/yr, from Worksheet B.1. For N concentration, multiply total weight of N by the Application Factor from Table 3 and then divide by the total manure volume (or weight).


Since farrowing and nursery manure are put into a single storage, what
are the Available N, P2O5, and K2O concentrations in the combined

  N concentration from combined storage:
     = (total lb available N from storage)/(total 1000-gal in storage)
     = (718 + 1194 lb Avail-N)/(75.6 + 70.2 1000-gal manure/year)
     =1,912 lb/145.8 1000-gal
     = 13.11 lb available N/1000-gal manure from combined storage

  P concentration from combined storage:
     =(907 + 1,334) / (75.6 + 70.2)
     =2241/145.8 1000-gal
     = 15.37 lb P2O~1000-gal manure from combined storage

  K concentration from combined storage:
     =(832 + 1,544) / (75.6 + 70.2)
     = 16.30 lb K2O/1000-gal manure from combined storage

To find the potential dollar value of the manure resource, multiply the Total "lb nutrients/yr" for N, P2O5, and K2O (Worksheet B .2) times the fertilizer price in your area. The total dollar amount assumes you can use all of the N, P2O5, and K2O. After completing Worksheet E, the potential value can be adjusted for the amounts of each nutrient that this year's crops are expected to use.

Worksheet B.1. Annual manure production

Manure                                      Portion of
storage  Storage    Animal                  year facility
number    type       type        No.  Week   occupied       Manure added

                                                     gal/year gal/ gal/day
   1     Liquid pit Farrow (S&L)    60 47/52 (0.90)   145,800 12,150     399
         Liquid pit  Nursery pigs  540 52/52 (1.00)
   2     Liquid pit Grow-Fin pigs 1890 52/52 (1.00) 1,001,700 83,475   2,744
TOTAL                                               1,147,500 95,625   3,143

Worksheet B.2. Nutrient concentrations and annual nutrients from swine manure

   Manure storage         Concentrations            Pounds nutrients/year
       number       Avail. N    P2O5      K2O  Avail. N    P2O5        K2O
                      ---lb/1000 gal---              ---lb nutrients/year---
         1           13.16      15.31    16.30  1,918      2,241     2,376
         2           22.60      26.40    25.40 22,638     26,445    25,443

       TOTALS                                  24,556     28,686    27,819

Worksheet B.3. Balance sheet: Nutrients in manure and nutrients crops need (Year 1)

Total manure nutrients, lb/year, Worksheet B.2. Total crop nutrient needs, lb/year, Worksheet A.4.

                                                Pounds nutrients/year

                                             Avail. N    P2O5      K2O
                                                ---lb nutrients/year---
   Total manure nutrients produced           24,556    28,686     27,816
   Total crop needs                          25,600    12,500     26,000
   Surplus manure nutrients (or shortage)   (1,044)    16,186      1,816

       Additional N used if N put on legumes.

       Year 1                               (8,400)

       Year 2                               (11,200)

       Year 3

Before making decisions about which manure to apply where, see if you have more--or less--manure nutrients than your crops need. The total Avail. N, P2O5, and K2O needs of the crops from Worksheet A.3 and the animal nutrient production in Worksheet B.2 are shown together in Worksheet B.3.

In this example, the pork operation produces 24,556 lb Avail. N, 28,696 lb P2O5, and 27,816 lb K2O, per year. The 1,044 lb/year calculated as needed N (shortage of manure N) is about 4% of annual need or about 7 lb N/acre of corn land (1,044/140 acres). Such a small amount is generally negligible.

There is surplus P and K. When soybeans are growing in Fields #2 (year 2) or #3 (years 1 and 3), the soil tests in those fields for P and K could be substantially raised with manure. The legumes will use those elements. The legumes will also take up the N, even though it is not required.

There are two ways to handle excess P and K in certain fields, but still meet plant N needs:

Worksheet B.3 gives an overview of what manure utilization can offer your farming practices. If you do not have enough manure to fertilize all fields, save what nutrients you can by using manure carefully. If you have more manure than your crops and soils can safely use, consider contracting with neighbors for additional crop land. Another option is to put in a lagoon, which is a treatment unit that reduces the amount of nitrogen to about one third.

In the example, there is enough land to use the manure, based on crop nitrogen needs, but a surplus of phosphorus. The next step is to determine how much of which manure goes on which field.

"C", Worksheet - Manure Storage Capacity

The amount of manure storage needed depends on:

In Worksheet C, transfer the daily and monthly manure accumulation for each storage from Worksheet B. 1. An example of computing storages is shown below. Compute storage capacity in cubic feet, gallons, or tons of manure. See "Conversions and Volumes" on page 27 for useful formulas. Assume at least 1 ft freeboard for deep pits, tanks, and earthen basins and lagoons.

The number of days of manure storage available is: (manure storage capacity) divided by (daily manure accumulation).


     Consider Storage #1, which includes liquid pits under the
farrowing and nursery room.

       Assume the usable pit volumes are 230' long, are 7' wide under
each side, and 4' deep.
       Allow 1' freeboard; maximum manure storage depth =3.0'.

     Storage pit volume = (230 x 14 x 3.0 ft) x 7.5 gal/cu ft
       = 72,450 gal
     Days of storage capacity = (Storage Capacity)/(Daily Manure Accumulation).
     Storage = 72,450/399 gal/day (Worksheet B.1.) = 182 days.

Worksheet C. Manure storage capacity

                Daily manure    Monthly manure      Existing manure
   Manure      accumulation        accumulation     storage capacity Days
   storage    (gal or tons)        (gal or tons)      (gal, tons)    storage
     1             399 gal         12,150 gal         72,450 gal     182
     2             2,744            83,475            430,000a       157

   TOTAL           3,143            95,625            493,900

a Assumed value for this example.

"D" Worksheet - Labor, Equipment and Cropping Time-Line

Worksheet D helps you schedule times to apply manure when soil and crop conditions are appropriate. Table 4 gives the average number of days available for land application on various crops based on typical Indiana weather and soil conditions. Adjust the "Suitable periods" and "Number of days" based on your experiences with each specific farm field.

Mark with "x" the times when labor, manure application equipment or land are not available for applying manure. While planning manure application, try to minimize compacting soils, ruts in fields, and interference with the crop program.

Worksheet D. Field availability for application

"X" indicates the field is unavailable.

Note:Fields 3 and 4 are too steep for spreading manure on frozen ground.

Field #  Crop   Oct Nov Dec  Jan  Feb Mar Apr May Jun  Jul  Aug Sep
  1    Corn     xxx                             xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  2    Corn     xxx                             xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  3    Beans             xxxxxxxxxxxxxx            xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  4   Pasture            xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

"E" Worksheets - Manure Budget

Several factors affect fertilizing crops with stored manure. The following guidelines are suggested:

Non-legumes generally need more manure to satisfy their N needs than for their P and K needs. Legumes can generate the N they need; but if N is applied, with manure or commercial fertilizers, the plants will use that N up to the amount listed in Table 1 as "N crop use/year."

Think of your manure storages as a checkbook for budgeting. Livestock deposit manure every day. You spend it seasonally to fertilize crops.

A "rich" operation

If your operation is "rich," it has animal manure nutrients filling up the "checkbook" as fast or faster than you can spend it on crops. You will, generally, apply manure to satisfy crop N needs, and will therefore over-apply P and K. Rotate fields receiving manure to avoid P and K build-up. It is best to apply P and K at about the rates based on results of your soil and manure testing, or in Table 1, if possible. Contract with neighbors to accept some of your manure on their fields if your manure nutrient supply exceeds what you can usefully put on your crops.

Soil P tests will increase about 4 ppm per year. Applying manure to fields 1, 2, and 3 will supply adequate P and build up soil levels. Over the course of 5-6 years, the P soil levels should be high enough that only maintenance rates are needed. Continued high applications could result in excessive soil tests.

A "poor" operation

If your operation is "poor" relative to crop needs, it needs more nutrients. The manure nutrients going into the checkbook and plant demands for nutrients exceed your supply each year. Commercial fertilizers make up the difference. Usually, manure is used to meet P and K needs, and supplemental N is added to meet N needs.

Even if you are manure "poor," if some fields are low in P and K, consider meeting plant N needs with manure on those fields; the extra nutrients will build up soil P and K levels for future crops. Since it is unlikely that both P and K are balanced exactly with crop needs, rotate fields with this option, too.

The following manure budget for our example illustrates the deposit/withdrawal system. The cropping year begins on October 1 with a certain amount of manure on hand (in storage). The animals increase the balance each month by a known amount of manure; withdrawals are made to apply manure to fields. Our example farmer can spread up to 82,500 gal/day (10 hr/day x 3 loads/hr x 2,750 gal/load).

To start Worksheet E: List the storages, copy the manure added/month (gal/mo) from Worksheet B .1, copy storage capacities (gal) from Worksheet C, and the amount of manure in the storages at the beginning of the manure/crop year. We have assumed the capacities shown. Manure in storage can be calculated or estimated from the manure depth, see Conversions and Volumes.

The manure in a storage at the end of a month is:

   The balance on the first of the month
   + Manure added/month
   - Amount removed and spread during the


Which manure on which field?

Using Best Management Practices # AS, A10, B6, C1, D2, D8, and D10 (see Appendix):


Worksheet E.1 Nutrient budget. All volumes in gallons. Year 1 in rotation

Working Days from Table 4* Max. manure handled = (Working days x 10 hr x 3 loads/hr x 2750 gal/load)/1000

               Manure                                       Manure inventory at END of each month

Storage Add/  Storage  on
   #   month capacity hand      Oct      Nov    Dec    Jan     Feb     Mar      Apr      May     Jun    Jul    Aug      Sep
   1  12,150  72,450  52,500   6,900    8,050 20,200  32,350  44,500  56,650   5,550   17,700 29,850  42,000  54,150  66,300

   2  83,475 430,000 330,000   6,475    4,700 88,175 171,650 255,125 338,600   6,825    7,800 91,275 174,750 258,225  341,700

Working days available           20       17     7       2       3      5        11      16     21      23     24       19

*Max. manure handled/month     1,650    1,402   577     165     247    412       907   1,320  1,732   1,897  1,980    1,567
(thous of gal)

Manure Applied
Field #1
Storage#/Vol. Applied                                                        2/415,250 2/33,000

Field #2                    2/407,000 2/85,250
Storage #/Vol. Applied

Field #3
Storage #/Vol. Applied      1/57,750 1/11,000                                 1/63,250 2/49,500

Field #4
Storage #/Vol. Applied

Total Vol. hauled/month       464,750   96,250                                478,500  82,500

Worksheet E.2. Summary, by field, for year-1 in rotation


In Worksheet A.3., Avail. N for Yr-1 (second column in the table), Field #1 needs 190 lb/ac N. From Worksheet A.1., Field 1 is 60 acres (column 2). Total field needs, Worksheet A.4., = 190 lb/ac x 60 ac = 11,400 lb N for Field #1.

In Worksheet El., looking across from Field #1 for all 12 months, there was no manure put on Field #1 from Storage #1. On Field #1, manure from storage #2 was put on in April (415,250 gal) and May (33,000 gal).

In the Worksheet below, in the column headed "Vol.", the volume of manure put on Field #1 from Storage #1 = 0. The volume for Field #1, Storage #2 was 448,250 gal.

The nutrient concentrations for Storage #2 manure are listed in Worksheet B .2. The manure contains 22.6 lb N, 26.4 lb P, and 25.4 lb K per 1000 gal. Multiply the manure volume (448,250) times the concentrations to find 10,130 lb N, 11,834 lb P2O5, and 11,386 lb K2O.

After finding the total N applied to Field #1 from Storage #2, compare the total (10,130 lb) N with the required N (11,400 lb). Additional commercial fertilizer will be needed (1,270 lb N). This could be applied with a starter fertilizer.

                              Field #1 (60 Ac)                Field #2 (80 Ac)
      Crop          Vol.     N     P2O5    K2O        Vol.     N     P2O5 K2O

                              ---lb/field---                   ---lb/field---
Crop Needs         ----    11,400  3,600  8,700     ----    11,200 5,600  10,400
(from Worksheet A.3)
Nutrient Applied, 1b (from Worksheets B.2 & E.l)
   Storage #1           0       0      0     0  #1       0        0      0      0
   Storage #2     448,250  10,130 11,834 11,386  #2  492,250 11,125 12,995 12,503
   TOTAL                   10,130 11,834 11,386  TOTAL       11,125 12,995 12,503

Fertilizer needed; Total lb 1,270      0      0                  75      0      0

   (Excess) Total lb.           ---- (8,234) (2,686)             ---- (7,395) (2,103)
                             Field #3 (60 Ac)                  Field #4 (20 Ac)
      Crop          Vol      N      P205    K20       Vol.       N     P2O  K20

Nutrient Applied
 Storage #1       132,000   1,737  2,038  2,152  #1
 Storage #2        49,500   1,119  1,307  1,257  #2      0        0      0      0
    TOTAL                   2,856  3,345   43,409   TOTAL
Fertilizer needed; Total lb 5,544      0  3,494

(Excess) Total 1b.                 (45)*
 * () indicates application m excess 0 crop needs.


In our example, crops were selected for three-year rotations on fields expected to receive manure. Three major reasons suggest planning for at least three years or whatever your crop rotation is:

In our example, manure was added to fields needing the most crop nutrients. Field #2 received manure first, because of its lower P and K soil tests and need for nitrogen. The most concentrated manure (storage #2) was applied to Field #1 and Field #2. More dilute manures were applied to the bean field, Field #3, and, was not needed for the pasture (Field #4). Only the P and K credit can be assumed for fertilizer savings with legume crops.

It was necessary in this example to empty the manure pits by the end of November to have enough winter storage capacity (December through March). Some manure might be applied in March, but it is most desirable to apply in April and May when field conditions are optimal.

Caution: Limited storage and limited manure-spreading capacity make it very difficult to fulfill a manure application schedule on the fields unless ideal weather conditions exist. Greater storage capacity allows more scheduling flexibility. Field spreading may be impossible during abnormally wet weather if soil won't support application equipment.

Summarize the volumes of manure from each source applied on each field in Worksheet E.2. Based on manure analyses from your farm, or the averages listed in Appendix Table 2, list the total amount of nutrients (Avail. N, P2O5, and K2O) supplied by the manure and compare it with the total amount required by the field (from work-sheet Table A.3). Determine if commercial fertilizer nutrients are needed in the field.

In this example, P and K requirements were in excess for Fields #1 and #2 with N requirement met on Field #2 with manure application. In Field #3, additional K2O from commercial sources is needed and since no manure was applied to Field #4, additional N from commercial sources is required.


This worksheet approach to developing a manure management plan can help you evaluate manure applications to cropland. It is not intended to "automate" decision making, to recommend specific practices, or to replace computer software or crop consultants. Rather, it is to help the conscientious producer better utilize the value of available maure resources. The specifics of each farm, crop rotation, and set of management objectives must still be weighed. Decisions by the producer will fit the farm's specifics into workable manure "budgets."

The following Best Management Practices (BMPs) give you valuable guidelines on utilizing manure nutrients efficiently in cropping programs without negatively impacting the environment. Refer to the extension publications listed on page 28 in this publication for more detail on additional aspects of swine manure management.


A. Nutrient Management

Al. Reduce chemical fertilizer applied to a field by the corresponding amount of manure nutrients applied.

A2. Keep a record on each field of manure and chemical fertilizer applications, crop information, and soil and manure test results.

A3. Test the soil in each field for P, K and other nutrient levels, pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Follow a soil testing routine recommended by the Cooperative Extension Service or a crop consultant or fertilizer dealer.

A4. Test manure for TKN, NH4-N, P, K, and dry matter initially while emptying a storage. Use an on-farm quick test for available N content every 10 or so loads and adjust application rate if necessary. After manure test results are generally stable, use quick tests on a few representative loads each year. Note: Available N in storage = NH4-N + 0.35 x (TKN - NH4); where 0.35 is a typical mineralization value for Indiana.

A5. Apply manure uniformly with calibrated equipment. Check calibration routinely. A6. Use the nutrients carried in runoff that has contacted manure.

A7. Nitrification Inhibitors in liquid manure-injection systems can reduce nitrogen losses. xblb

In coarse soils all year long. In all soils in fall and summer. In fine or medium texture soils with high water table in winter and spring. xble

A8. An economic and efficient nitrogen benefit from manure is to apply a nitrification inhibitor and manure at a rate to meet the N crop requirement.

A9. In general it takes 5 lb P2O5 to increase soil P test by 1 ppm and 1.75 lb K2O to increase soil K test by 1 ppm. Soils low in these nutrients can be "built up" to recommended levels with extra manure nutrients.

A10. To prevent excessive P and K build-up, rotate manure applications to other fields, or reduce manure application to meet the most limiting nutrient requirement (generally P) and supplement with commercial fertilizer.

B. Crop Factors

B1. Base crop fertilizer needs on realistic yield goals. Deduct nitrogen credit from last year's legume from this year's fertilizer requirements. For the current crop year, estimate N contributions from:

B2. Use commercial fertilizer only when manure does not meet crop needs.

B3. Apply fertilizer with proper timing and placement for maximum plant utilization, i.e., in the spring about two weeks before planting.

B4. Add a nitrification inhibitor (e.g. N Serve) to stabilize N before: xblb * Injecting manure on poorly drained, fine-textured soils. * Injecting high-N manure in the summer or fall. xble

B5. Incorporate manure to reduce N loss and manure runoff.

B6. Put manure on non-legume crops as a first priority.

B7. When necessary, surface-apply manure over fall cover crops or surface residues rather than tilled soil to minimize runoff.

B8. During the summer, broadcast manure on pastures, where nutrients can be used immediately or inject on harvested wheat fields with an inhibitor.

C. Soil Factors

Cl. Apply manure to fields with the lowest soil test.

C2. Avoid applying manure to wet soils to reduce compaction, runoff, denitrification and leaching.

C3. Apply manure in the fall (possibly with an inhibitor) if compaction appears to be a prevalent problem with the soil.

C4. Apply manure to sandy soil near planting time to minimize nitrate leaching. Applying smaller amounts of N more often rather than a large amount at one time minimizes leaching.

C5. Add N-enrichment (anhydrous ammonia or urea) when incorporating manure at lower application rates to balance nutrients and meet crop needs.

C6. Apply manure in the fall after the soil has cooled to 500F or less, or add a nitrification inhibitor.

D. Which Manure Where?

Dl. Apply manure with the highest N content in the spring or fall; apply the lowest N manure in summer.

D2. Haul the highest nutrient content manure to the farthest fields.

D3. Apply lowest nutrient content manure to closest fields. If possible, irrigate with runoff water and lagoon water.

D4. Apply the highest nutrient manure to corn silage or other crops with high nutrient demands.

D5. Apply the highest nutrient manure to legumes only if you have no better use for the N content, because legumes produce their own N if none is provided.

D6. To avoid N leaching to ground water, limit N applications on sandy soils, and avoid soils with high water tables.

D7. Do not apply more N than crop needs.

D8. Apply high-P manure to fields with lowest P soil test levels.

D9. If manure is applied to the same fields every year, alternate each year between high-nutrient and low-nutrient manures if possible.

Dl0. Apply most concentrated manures to fields with high nutrient demand.

E. Site and Environment Factors

E1. Inject manure, or incorporate solid manure, the same day as surface spreading to minimize nitrogen losses, odors, and runoff potential.

E2. Applying manure on erosive soils, delay application and tillage until spring.

E3. Incorporate liquid manure applied in karst areas.

E4. Incorporate manure on nonerosive soils in fall to retain nutrients.

E5. Apply manure on frozen or snow-covered soil only if:

* It is necessary to empty storage.
* The land is not subject to flooding.

* Land slope is less than 2% or erosion control practices are in place (examples: terraces, conservation tillage, cover crops, contour farming). Note: Increase manure-spreading separation distances by 100% where runoff may occur. E6. Surface apply manures in highly erodable land (HEL) to cover crops, res-idue cover or consistent with erosion control practices.

F. Additional Recommendations:

Fl. Check with local city and county officials for applicable regulations on zoning, health, building code, set back distances, etc.

F2. Unless manure is incorporated by the end of the working day (and before rainfall occurs), do not apply manure within:

* 50 ft of road ditches,

* 100 ft from a surface tile inlet, sinkhole, intermittent stream, drainage ditch, or other body of water.

Note: Increase manure-spreading separation distances by 100% where runoff may occur.

F3. Do not apply manure within 200 ft of a water well.

F4. Do not apply manure on a floodplain during high water periods and not at other times unless manure is incorporated by the end of the working day, or unless there is sufficient residue or crop cover to protect the soil from erosion.

F5. Do not surface-spread liquid manure on slopes steeper than 6% unless there is sufficient residue or crop cover to prevent runoff, or on frozen or snow-covered slopes steeper than 2%, because of the risk of runoff, unless incorporated into the soil by the end of the working day.

Table 1. Example crop nutrient requirement*

N, P2O5, and K2O; soil concentrations and application amounts are in pounds per acre. Soil-P and soil-K reduce the amount of fertilizer-P and fertilizer-K needed.

                         Expected         N*     Use for Soil P (ppm) equal to or greater than    Use for Soil K (ppm) equal to or greater than:
    Crop           ID     yield        N     0-5 6-10 11-30  31-35 36-4O 41-45 >46 0-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90  91-150 151-300 >300
                                                        pounds P2O5 per acre                              pounds K2O per acre (CEC of 10)
Corn/Gr_sorghum   C110  80 110bu     110     90  60     40     20    0     0   0   165   145   125   105   85     65     45      30     0
Corn/Gr_sorghum   C125 111 125bu     140     95  70     45     20    0     0   0   170   150   130   110   90     70     50      30     0
Corn/Gr_sorghum   C15O 126 150bu     160    100  75     50     25    0     0   0   180   160   140   120  100     80     60      35     0
Corn/Gr_sorghum   C175 151 175bu     190    110  85     60     30    0     0   0   185   165   145   125  105     85     65      40     0
Corn/Gr_sorghum   C300 176 300bu     220    115  90     65     35    0     0   0   190   170   150   130  110     90     70      40     0
Corn_Silage       CS20  10 20tons    140    115  90     65     35    0     0   0   300   280   260   240  220    200    180      110    0
Corn_Sllage       CS25  21 25 tons   180    135 110     85     45    0     0   0   300   300   300   290  270    250    230      140    0
Corn_Silage       CS30  26 30 tons   220    150 125    100     50    0     0   0   300   300   300   300  300    280    260      160    0
Soybeans           S40  30 40bu      140 30  80  55     30     15    0     0   0   195   175   155   135  115     95     75       40    0
Soybeans           S50  41   50bu    180 30  90  65     40     20    0     0   0   210   190   170   150  130    110     90       45    0
Soybeans           S60  51   60bu    220 30 100  75     50     25    0     0   0   225   205   185   165  145    125    105       50    0
Soybeans          S100  61  100bu    250 30 105  80     55     30    0     0   0   240   220   200   180  160    140    120       60    0
Wheat/Rye*         W45  30   45 bu    40    125  100    75     50    25    10  0   155   135   115    95   75     55     35       20    0
Wheat/Rye*         W55  46   55bu     40    130  105    80     55    30    15  0   160   140   120   100   80     60     40       25    0
Wheat/Rye*         W65  56   65bu     60    135  110    85     60    35    20  0   160   140   120   100   80     60     42       25    0
Wheat/Rye*        W100  66  100bu     75    145  120    95     70    45    20  0   165   145   125   105   85     65     45       30    0
Oats/Barley*       B85  70   85 bu    40    125  100    75     50    25    10  0   155   135   115    95   75     55     35       20    0
Oats/Barley*      B115  86  115 bu    40    130  105    80     55    30    15  0   160   140   120   100   80     60     40       25    0
Oats/Barle*       B150 116  150bu     60    135  110    85     60    35    20  0   160   140   120   100   80     60     45       30    0
Grass-Hay          GH2   1  2tons     75    125  100    70     25    25    15  0    60    55    50    45   40     35     30       15    0
Grass-Hay          GH4   3  4tons    140    150  125   100     50    50    25  0   120   110   100    90   80     70     60       50    0
Grass-Hay          GH6   5  6tons    210    180  155   130     80    80    40  0   180   165   150   135  120    105     90       75    0
Grass-Pasture      GP2   1  2tons     55    125  100    70     25    25    15  0    60    30    25    20   10      0      0        0    0
Grass-Pasture      GP4   3  4tons    100    150  125   100     50    50    25  0   120    55    50    45   20      0      0        0    0
Grass-Pasture      GP6   4  6tons    150    180  155   130     80    80    40  0   180    85    75    65   30      0      0        0    0
Grass/Legume_Hay   LH2   1  2tons    115 40 125   95    70     25    25    15  0   240   220   200   180  160    140    120       60    0
Grass/Legume_Hay   LH4   2  4tons    225 40 150  125   100     50    50    25  0   340   320   300   280  260    240    220       110   0
Grass/Legume_Hay   LH6   4  6tons    335 40 180  155   130     80    80    40  0   440   420   400   380  360    340    320       160   0
Grass/Legume_Hay   LH8   6  8tons    450 40 200  180   155    105   105    50  0   540   520   500   480  460    440    420       210   0
Grass/Leg_Pasture  LP2   1  2tons    100 40 125  100    70     25    25    15  0   120   110   100    90   80     70     60        30   0
Grass/Leg_Pasture  LP4   2  4tons    210 40 150  125   100     50    50    25  0   170   160   150   140  130    120    110        55   0
Grass/Leg_Pasture  LP6   4  6tons    320 40 180  155   130     80    80    40  0   220   210   200   190  180    170    160        80   0
Grass/Leg_Pasture  LP8   6  5tons    430 40 200  180   155    105   105    50  0   270   260   250   240  230    220    210       105   0
Tobacco           T1.5   0  1.5 tons 250    175  120    75     75    50    25  0   350   300   250   200  150    100     75        40   0
Summer_Ann_Forag   SF3   0  3tons    110    100   70    50     30    20    10  0   100    85    70    60   50     25      0         0   0
Summer_Ann_Forag   SF5   3  5 tons   165    120   90    60     40    20    10  0   150   135   120    95   70     35      0         0   0
Summer_Ann_Forag   SF7   5  7tons    190    130  100    70     50    30    10  0   180   160   140   115   90     45      0         0   0

Table 2. Swine Manure Storage Requirements and Nutrients Produced.

Values are based on building capacity, e.g. number of farrowing stalls, and include typical dilution and bedding. Data are from nutrient measurements in many storages. Additional N can be lost during transport, distribution, and application.

     Storage       Sow and Nursery     Grow-Finish Gestating         per per pig Feeder
      type          litter pig (35 lb) pig (160 lb) sow (370 Lb)     sow mkt'd  pigs sold
Daily Manure Storage Required
Solid, lb/day         13.2   1.3        5.8           5.5             47.0 2.6      0.7
Liquid, gal/day       3.8   0.4        1.4           1.2             12.5 0.7     0.18
Lagoon, gal/day       5.8   0.6        2.6           2.5             21.2 1.2      0.3
Yearly Manure Storage    Required
Solid, ton/yr         2.4  0.24        1.1           1.0              8.6 0.5     0.13
Liquid, 1000 gal/yr   IA   0.13        0.53          0.53             4.5 0.25    0.07
Lagoon, 1000 gal/yr   2.1   0.22      0.95           0.9              7.7  0.43    0.11
Manure Nutrients
Solid manure                     Pounds of nutrient/ton of manure
Avail N, lb           5.4   7.9        9.5                  6A       8.7  8.7     6.6
P2O5                  6.0   8.0        9.0                 7.0       8.5  8.5     7.0
K2O                   4.0   4.0        5.0                 5.0       4.8  4.8     4.4
Liquid manure                      Pounds of nutrient/1000 gal of manure
Avail N, lb          10.0  18.0       23.8                16.6      20.5 20.5    14.8
P2O5                 12.0  19.0        26A                25.0      23.3 20.0    18.4
K2O                  11.0  22.0       25.4                24.0      22.6 20.0    18.7
Lagoon                             Pounds of   nutrients/1000 gal manure
Avail N, lb           2.9   3.7        4.7                 3.3       4.3  4.3     3.3
P2O5                  1.5   3.0        3.0                 3.5       2.9  2.7     2.7
K2O                   1.5   3.0        4.0                 4.0       3.7  2.9     2.9

Table 3. Application Factors - % Available N alter handling, spreading, field and soil losses.

Data on stored manure include losses during collection and storage. This table accounts for the losses between storage and plant nitrogen use. A nitrification inhibitor reduces N losses following injection of liquids or incorporation of solids.

     Type of application           No inhibitor       With nitrification inhibitor

Irrigated                             50%                 Not recommended
Surface spread                        60%                 Not recommended
Injected or incorporated              80%                      95%
within 24 hours of spreading

Table 4. When to apply livestock manure to Indiana crops.*

                                          Number of days for applying manure
                                          With spreading equipment
                Periods to apply manure  North Indiana  South Indiana

                Beans/ Small Legume/                                    With
Months Dates  corn  grain  or grass   biweekly total biweekly  total  irrigation
 Jan     1-14     d     b       d         1      2       1       2      --
        16-31     d     b       d         1              1              --
 Feb     1-15     d     b       x         1      3       2       5      --
        16-28     d     b       x         2              3              --
 Mar     1-15     x     x      --         2      5       3       7      --
        16-31     x     x      --         3      5       4               6
 Apr     1-15     x    --      --         5     11       6      13       9
        16-30     --   --      --         6              7              10
 May     1-15     a    --      --         8     16       7      16      10
        16-31     a    --      --         8              9              --
 Jun     1-15     a    --      --        10     21      10      21      12
        16-30     --   --       c        11             11
 Jul     1-15     --   --       c        12     23      12      23      14
        16-31     --   --       c        11             11              15
 Aug     1-15     --    x       c        12     24      11      24      15
        16-31     d     b       d        2              3              --

Key to table symbols:
x. Typical application period.
a. Apply with injection or irrigate until corn is 2' high.
b. Apply up to 25% of annual crop needs to dormant wheat in winter.
c. Apply up to 25% annual crop needs to grass immediately after harvest. If grass is pastured, light applications
are suitable all year.
d. See BMP's for spreading on sloping or frozen ground and near water.
*These are long term averages from Indiana Annual Crop and Livestock Summary. 1975. Actual periods vary by
   soil type, topography, and annual weather.


 * Parts per million (ppm) X 2 = lb/acre             * Divide lb/ton by 20 =
 * .5 lb P2O5 increases soil P test value by 1 ppm   * Divide lb/1000-gal by 83 =
 * lb P2O5 X 0.44 = lb P                             * Typical density of swine manure = 62
 * lb P x 2.29=lb P2O5                                           pounds per cubic foot
                                                                Tons x 32.26 = cu ft
 * 1.75 lb K2O increases soil K test value by 1 ppm             Cu ft x 0.0310= tons
 * lb K2O x 0.83=lb K                                            Tons x 241 S gal
 * lb K x 1.2=lb K2O                                             Gal x 0.00414 =tons
 * Divide ppm by 10,000 =


80 lb nitrogen per ton/20 =4% nitrogen. 100 tons manure occupies about 3226 cu ft. Manure in 3500 gal tank weighs about 14.5 tons.


 * "Freeboard" is space in a storage that is designed to not store
manure. It is often one foot or two feet o f clear space between
Liquid Depth, LD (maximum manure depth), and total height or earth
depth, H, to prevent the storage from overflowing.

 * if a rectangular tank is W ft wide, L ft long, and its sides are H
ft high, and required free board is F ft: 

      Maximum manure depth =Liquid Depth = Height - Freeboard; 

      LD = H - F.  Storage Volume=W x L x LD = W x L x (H-F) cu ft
*  if a circular tank has a diameter of D ft and sides that are H ft high, 
and required freeboard is F ft

      Maximum manure depth = Liquid Depth = Height - Freeboard; LD = H - F.

      Storage Volume= 3.14 x D x D x LD/4 cu ft = 0.785 x D x D x LD. (3.14 is "Pi")

* If an earthen storage is W ft wide, L ft long, H ft inside depth,
freeboard is F ft and the sides slope S ft horizontal to 1 ft vertical
(manure surface is smaller than the top opening because of the sloping

      Liquid Width = LW = W-2 x F x S. Liquid depth= LD = H-F.

      Liquid Length= LL = L-2 x F x S.

      Storage volume = (LW x LL x LD) + (4 x S x S x LD x LD x LD/3) - (S x LD x LD) x (LW + LL).

Hint: a. Multiply: (LWxLLxLD).
      b. Multiply: (4xSxSxLDxLDxLD)
       and divide by 3.
      c.Add the second term, b,
       to the first term, a: c. =a. +b.
      d. Multiply (SxLDxLD).
      e. Add (LW+LL).
      f.Multiply the two terms,
        f.=d. x e.
      g. Volume = c. - f.


Purdue University Computer Programs -

AMANURE, 1994; the livestock manure/ crop fertilizer computer program; handles one manure source and one crop; phone Purdue's Farm Building Plan Service at 317/494-1172. $15.

MBUDGET, 1994; Essentially a compiled spreadsheet alternative to the worksheets in this publication; handles up to seven fields and up to seven manure sources; phone Purdue's Farm Building Plan Service at 317/494-1172. $15.

Purdue University publications - available from Indiana county Cooperative Extension Service offices or from Agricultural Communication Service Media Distribution Center, Purdue University, 301 South 2nd Street, Lafayette, IN 47901-1232.

ID-101, 1994, Animal Manure as a Plant Nutrient Resource.

ID-120, 1977, Design and Operation of Livestock Waste Lagoons. AE-87, 1976, Gutter Flushing Systems for Swine Buildings.

CES 227, 1990, updated 1993, How and Where to Get a Livestock Manure Analysis.

ID-1 14, 1976, Runoff Control Systems for Open Livestock Feedlots. AY-277, 1993, Calculating Manure and Manure Nutrient Application Rates.

AY-278, 1993, Estimating Manure Spreader Capacity.

ID-198, 1993, Crop Production Recordkeeping System.

PIH-33, 1988, Controlling Odors from Swine Buildings.

WQ-1, 1990, Water Testing Laboratories.

WQ-7, 1990, Animal Agriculture's Effect on Water Quality - Pastures and Feedlots.

WQ-8, 1990, Animal Agriculture's Effect on Water Quality - Waste Storage.

AY-170, Soybean Fertilization in Indiana.

AY-171, Corn Fertilization in Indiana.

AY-244, Wheat Production and Fertilization in Indiana.

AY-268, Fertilizing Corn Grown Using Conservation Tillage.

Midwest Plan Service - available from Purdue's Farm Building Plan Service, 1146 Agricultural Engineering Building, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1146; 317/494-1173. Or from Midwest Plan Service, 122 Davidson Hall ISU, Ames, IA 50011; 515/294/4337.

MWPS-8, 4th Ed., 1983, Swine Housing and Equipment Handbook. $8.

MWPS-18, 3rd Ed., 1993, Livestock Waste Facilities Handbook. $8.

MWPS-40, 1st Ed., 1992, Swine Farrowing Handbook, Housing and Equipment. $7.

New 6/94


The Swine Manure Management Planning publication was a joint effort of the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service and the Indiana Soil Conservation Service. John Pedersen, Consulting Agricultural Engineer, Ames, IA, provided valuable technical input and editing.

The partial support for publication development from th Indiana Pork Producers Association is appreciated.

The following individuals contributed to ID-205:

Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service Don Huber; Dept of Botany and Plant Pathology Brad Joern, Dept of Agronomy Don Jones, Dept of Agricultural Engineering Alan Sutton, Dept of Animal Science

Indiana Soil Conservation Service Jeff Healy, State Soil Conservation Engineer Philip McLoud, Ass't State Soil Conservation Engineer Jesse Wilcox, Conservation Agronomist

Additional Support was provides by:

Stephen Hawkins, Dept of Agronomy Purdue University Cheri Janssen, Dept of Agronomy, Purdue University Virginia DuBowy Dept of Agricultural Engineering, Purdue University Russell Merzdorf, Agricultural Communications Service, Purdue University

Cooperative Extension work in Agriculture and Home Economics, State of Indiana, Purdue University and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating: H.A. Wadsworth, Director, West Lafayette, IN. Issued in furtherance of the acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914. The Cooperative Extension Service of Purdue University is an equal opportunity/equal access institution.

Reviewed September 1999